AN ASSESSMENT OF JOB OPPORTUNITIES FOR RURAL-URBAN MIGRANTS (CASE STUDY OF LAGOS, NIGERIA)
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Rural-urban migration in Nigeria take place or occur with the migration of rural residents, many of them young men and women in search of greener pastures in the city. The movement in the direction of traditional pre-colonial centers, Lagos, and the cities of the South South region of eastern Nigeria is due largely to the possibilities of employment, to glee in the “good life”, pious study, trade and the apprentice and agriculture along the parts of the river basin.
Rural areas are a key sector in the economy of each nation and their rapid development and modernization have drawn the attention of policy makers and governments worldwide. Indeed, a large majority of the population lives there so; the country’s future depends largely on it.
The US Census Bureau classifies a group of people living in a community with a population of more than 2,500 rural, while in Nigeria, the Federal Statistical Office defines a less than 20,000 people that rural community. According Afolayan (2005), rural areas can be straightforwardly recognized by numerous criteria, apart from the population. These criteria include the level of development of infrastructure ie roads, educational institutions, water supply, electricity, health amenities, communication, etc. Other benchmarks used take account of occupancy, housing, extent of community planning, etc.
In general, rural populations are less vocal, considered by an ethos of poverty, as most individuals live only just above survival level (Laah, 2013). Rural regions in unindustrialized countries are in general deprived of the basic necessities of life such as housing, medical care, postal communication, education, transport, etc.
Unambiguously, rural regions speak of geographical areas that lie outside the densely built environment of cities, towns and villages, urban sub whose inhabitants are mainly engaged in agriculture, and the most basic of the rudimentary form of secondary and tertiary activities (Ezeah, 2005). Rural area, which is the opposite of an urban area, refers to the country whose population mainly engages in primary production activities such as agriculture, fishing and livestock (Ele, 2006). About 90 percent of the active population of the rural workforce involves unswervingly on the other hand in a roundabout way in horticulture (Nyagba, 2009).The provincial division of Nigeria is very vital to the socioeconomic development of the nation. According Nyagba (2009), the largest sector of the Nigerian population is rural. Indeed, the rural sector is the fundamental wellspring of capital arrangement for the nation and a major market for domestic materials and raw materials for industrial processes (Ugwuanyi and Emma, 2013). The inhabitants of the rural area were found to exert primary economic activities that form the basis for the country’s economic development (Abah, 2010).
Considering the contribution of the rural sector to the national economy, improving the development of the sector should be at the center of government what’s more, open organization. This is fundamental in that capacity would further strengthen the sector’s capacity for better contribution to overall national growth and development. In most countries, the development is most eager in rural areas where most of the populace lives. The advancement of rural regions reported a greater extent the level of national development and the state of affairs of the nation-state growth.
Migration has been a significant source of human survival, adaptation and growth through the centuries and millennia. This was true in the early days of human existence, when hunters and gatherers roamed as individuals and groups across Africa to Eurasia and then through the Bering Strait into North America and South America (Castles and Miller, 2010).
Rural development has been described in different ways by different authors, according to the discipline or line of thought. Indeed, the rural development approach is multidisciplinary. According to Aslam (2013) rural improvement is a progression pointed at developing the rural poor, their economy and institutions of a state of stagnation or low productivity equilibrium in the dynamic process leading to higher living standards and a better quality of life. Similarly, Schumacher (2013) defined the rural development by developing the skills of the masses for self- making through instructions that provide appropriate and relevant knowledge on self -help methods. Rural development is a strategy to improve economic what’s more, social existence of a particular gathering of individuals, the rustic poor.
It involves extending the progress of development and benefits people who seek a livelihood in rural areas such as small farmers, tenants, etc., to improve their livelihoods and reduce the exodus massive rural (Aliy, 1999). The rural exodus occurs at different levels in all countries. However, the challenges and opportunities for rural development in Nigeria have been of great concern for the various levels of government because of the rate of rural-urban migration.
Different patterns represent the rural exodus among rural residents such as socio-cultural issues where people are forced to migrate to avoid many social problems to their place of origin (Agyemang, 2013), the development of poor infrastructure and lack of basic amenities, looking for better economic opportunities such as employment, etc. accessibility and ease of transport and communication was also noted for facilitating the rural exodus, this view is based on the expansion of road networks of large cities to rural and urban bordering regions which stemmed in the declinetransport costs and improved communication systems.
Before colonialism in Nigeria, extended families lived a communal life. They carried out their daily activities as well as in the agreement and shared their return following a properly understood custom. Colonialism exposed Nigerians in the international market through the introduction of cash crops and the creation of administrative offices in the planned areas that need investment in socio-economic infrastructure in these areas. This has stimulated the search for paid employment and migration of labor in these areas and therefore caused the beginning of the rural-urban migration in Nigeria. ” This has led to increased migration to new cities such as Lagos, etc: inexpert work was needed to menial jobs in the urban centers of the colonial administration ” (Nwanna, 2004). The theory behind this study is the Todaro model of migration. This theory provides a theoretical basis for understanding the rural exodus. It provides an overview of why migration occurs. According to Todaro (1997), migration is an economical choice where individuals or households decide to migrate from rural to urban areas, where a higher expected income in urban areas. This model suggests that the results of the migration in retort to urban-rural variations in expected rather than actual income. The basic principle is that migrants deliberate on the different perspectives of the labor market that are accessible between rural and urban areas, and select the one that make the most of their anticipated gains from migration. Due to the creation of urban centers by the colonial administration, urban centers have become more attractive to young people in large numbers from the use of superior quality and other socio-economic amenities, it resided. Rural areas were regularly abandoned by young, leaving aging men, women and children to work on farms.
This led to a decrease in agricultural production and its contribution to GDP
Product (GDP) in Nigeria has lowered the standard of living of rural people, and the desertion of rural areas. The migration of rural population to urban areas has caused many social and economic problems in rural areas. McCarthy (2004), said that ” excessive urbanization led to strong rate congestion of the city, delinquency and lowly infrastructure such as proper sewage method, drinking water, electricity and other services, chronic unemployment and the creation of large shanty towns and Shanty ‘‘.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Considering the contribution of the rural sector to the national economy, strengthen the sector’s development should be the priority the Government and relevant stakeholders. This is necessary as such would further strengthen the sector’s capacity for better contribution to overall national growth and development. Unfortunately, over the years, strategies and development efforts in Nigeria was more urban hospitals based on the result of the relative neglect of rural areas as evidenced by the lack of basic infrastructure in rural areas such as good roads, well equipped and functional, electrical energy, pipeline borne water etc (Abah, 2010).
Abonyi&Nnamani (2011) also noted that rural poverty persists in Nigeria regardless of the opulence fashioned by the country’s oil wealth as evidenced by the difficulty in obtaining basic daily needs such as food, water and shelter. The absence of these vital basic needs in rural areas has a number of rural dwellers migrate to urban centers in the hope of improving their living standards. According Abah (2010), the deplorable state of the rural sector of Nigeria is emphatic and more worrying is that even some policies and programs developed and implemented by the government over the years has not resulted in a significant improvement in the development of the rural population areas in Nigeria (Ezeah, 2005).
Incessant and excessive rural exodus caused many socio-economic problems, both in rural and urban areas. McCarthy, (2004) held that “excessive urbanization leads to high rates of urban congestion, crime and poor infrastructure such as adequate system of sewage disposal, safe and portable drinking water, electricity and other services, chronic unemployment with attendant creation of large slums and slums’. Numerous creating nations, including Nigeria have made a few endeavors to solve these problems of rural underdevelopment and desertion. In Nigeria, since the colonial period to date, successive governments have attempted to reform the rural areas where over 75% of Nigerians live in order to achieve growth and balanced development, and discourage the exodus rural, in vain (Omonigho, 2013). According Nwakeze (2004), Nigeria’s population is developing at a yearly rate of 2.8 percent that of the urban populace is developing at 5.5 percent; it is pertinent to note that this rate is among the most noteworthy on the planet today. This thusly calls for critical action to fast-tracking rural development to reduce urban population explosion.
Urbanization is generally considered the rural transformation of nature in cities. It is, in other words, the growth of cities in their base away from rural areas. In an ideal framework and Orthodox, the urbanization process should normally come with industrialization through the establishment of factories and expansion of employment opportunities, which should ideally however produce a thriving industrial city. The obvious relationship between urbanization and industrialization is the focal link of the workforce not only in trade and industry, but especially in agricultural production. Thus, the possibility of extending the conditions in urban areas, they, however, dialectically worse in rural areas that people are drawn permanently in urban areas where they are dangerously forced to abandon rural life searching for a way frivolous life in cities. The rural residents apparently see the attraction in cities with apparently better opportunities. But in fact, many people give up rural life, preferably in often overcrowded and poor, poverty and slums in cities where they can not find suitable employment opportunities (Gadd, 2011: 1). What causes these rural residents to uproot their places of this city life can be better appreciated in policy analysis. One wonders if these sectors, characterized with features of poverty, etc., are indeed within the urban land in Nigeria.
Such fields include, inter alia, the poor roads, lack of water, poor health and in most cases, without electricity supply. Other serious problems that border urban Nigerians social problems include insufficient employment opportunities that result in the increasing incidence of insecurity; resulting crimes, robbery, burglary, theft, etc. – As the only attractive options left to those who can not legitimately make ends meet to keep. However, even the employees legitimately engaged in intense fraudulent activity because the state forced them to see that crime is necessary so they can continue to afford to live in high – urban prices (Adedeji& Rowland, 1973: xi)
Despite the rapid growth of urbanization, Nigeria is predominantly a rural environment. The accession of Nigeria flag independence in 1960, more than three decades, has tried various rural development strategies, which aim to be successfully stabilized (Abbass, 1977). Rural society over time and within these strategies continued to be neglected and ignored and chronic and alarming circumstances influences around rural Nigeria have a picturesque threat to the future of human settlements. The nature of rural conditions to abundant vis-à-vis resources is a paradox. Threats to sustainable development by transforming rural areas have been created over time by connecting State public policy and the convolutions of state power via the political economy in determining and undermine control the means of production and class interests. Therefore, the defense of the interests of social scientists, physical planners and other researchers on the imperative of rural societies in the dynamics of the overall adequacy of the company and development was never challenged. Such appeal also argued that the economy and other rural issues’ behavior and state interests are better analyzed and understood in their political context “(Abbass 1997: 12) or the socio-political justification and social implications -economic.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The general aim of this study is to investigate the actual job opportunities for rural people migrating to the booming urban area of Lagos and compare them with their expectation.
The specific objectives are;
- To identify factors that influence the decisions made by rural people to migrate to urban regions (Push/Pull factors).
- To determine how migration to urban regions affects the standard of living of migrants.
- To find out whether rural development can serve as a panacea for rural urban migration
- To identify the socio-economic causes of rural urban migration
- To explore the effects of rural urban migration on rural development
- To ascertain measures put in place for rural development by government
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What are the factors that influence the decisions made by rural people to migrate to urban regions?
- Can migration to urban regions affect the standard of living of migrants?
- Can rural development serve as a solution to rural urban migration?
- What are the socio-economic reasons of rural urban migration?
- What are the consequences of rural urban movement on rural development?
- What methods are put in place by government to develop the rural areas?
H i: There is significant relationship between the increasing number of people moving from rural regions to urban regions and the job opportunities available.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the increasing number of people moving from rural regions to urban regions and the job opportunities available.
H i: There is significant relationship between the level of job satisfaction in migrating to urban regions and job availability in the rural areas
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the level of job satisfaction in migrating to urban regions and job availability in the rural areas
Ho: Rural development does not have any effect on rural urban migration in Nigeria.
H i: Rural development has an effect on rural urban migration in Nigeria
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will beam flash or searchlight on rural development and its end effect in the fight against the rural-urban migration in Nigeria. The study aims to find the socio -economic and cultural causes of rural -urban migration in the study area and its implications for rural development from the study area; this will help highlight the strategies adopted by members of the community to deal with the situation and what can be done to stop the situation.
This study will likewise help expose the level of the problem to important stakeholders so that they can seize the opportunity and implement measures to develop rural areas to reduce the rural-urban exodus. Finally, this research project will add to the existing physique of facts on the significance of rural development in the fight against the rural-urban migration in Nigeria.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
This study will focus on employment opportunities and its impact on the fight against the rural-urban migration in Nigeria with particular reference to the actual influence it has on the activities and lives of rural residents socio- economic, causes of the rural migration and the measures implemented by the relevant stakeholders in the fight against the threat of the rural-urban migration in the study area. The study will also address the impact of rural-urban migration in Nigeria.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Rural area: a topographical zone situated outside cities and towns with a somewhat low population density and small settlements.
Migration: movement of persons across a definite boundary for the tenacity of founding a new or semi-permanent residence.
Rural development: the course of enhancing the quality of life and economic well being of people living in somewhat remote areas
Rural urban migration: is a process of people transference from rural areas to urban areas with attendant upsurge in proportion of people living in urban areas.
Infrastructure: fundamental physical and organizational structures and amenities needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.