INFLUENCE OF PERCEIVED JOB DEMAND AND WORK LIFE BALANCE ON PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL BEING OF NGO WORKERS IN OYO STATE
1.1 Background of the Study
The place of work has been redefined owing to job demand, economic conditions and increasing social demands. Originally, work was taken up for purposes of survival and necessity. However the role of work has evolved and its composition has significantly changed. Nonetheless, today’s society still sees work as a necessary element for sustaining life’s demands; it is also expected to constitute a source of personal satisfaction to the worker. One of the approaches to aid the achievement of personal satisfaction and professional goals for workers, therefore, is the entrenchment of work-life initiatives and policies by employers of labour (Greenhaus and Powell, 2006). Thus, the value of the employees in ensuring successful implementation of organizations corporate goals have informed a lot of keen studies to be carried out in academia and on human resource management issues, which include work-life balance (Wright and Boswell 2002).
However, work life balance definition includes three important themes. These include the need for employees or workers to achieve an acceptable balance between work and family lives, a need for employer to facilitate their employees by providing programs and provide flexibility to the employees (H.De cieri). In work life balance state an individual manage conflict between different demands on his or her time and energy in a way that satisfy his or her need for well being. Organization encouraging work life balance is a way to attract and retain employees who support the well being of the organization. Work life imbalance has negative results for effective functioning of organization (Raj.R, 2013). Job productivity from productivity is a reward that an employee aimed as a result of productive activity apart from his income. So organization should consider this variable to satisfy employees to retain their best workers (Noraani Mustapha, 2013). Employee’s satisfaction towards organizational policies leads to greater organizational productivity as a result of employee performance. (Shagufta Sarwar, 2013) There is positive relationship between rewards and employees job productivity. And just a few studies have been directed to the above salient issues in education sector in Nigeria(Akanji, 2012; Igbinomwanhia, Iyayi and Iyayi, 2012; Ojo, Salau and Falola, 2014; Ojo,Falola and Mordi, 2014; Adisa; Mordi and Mordi, 2014). It has been observed that most of these articles chiefly investigated the impact of individual components of the work-life initiatives, and ignored the multiple initiatives. In order to achieve an effective work- life balance in the Nigerian education sector, it is imperative that organizations give attention to the promotion of comprehensive as against individual and isolated initiatives. In organizations and homes, the issue of work-life balance is rising to the top of many employers’ and employees’ consciousness.
On the other hand, psychological well-being is about lives going well. It is the combination of feeling good and functioning effectively (Ryff & Singer, 2008; Selingman, 2011). Sustainable well-being does not require individuals to feel good all the time; the experience of painful emotion is a normal part of life, and being able to manage these negative or painful emotions is essential for long-term well-being (Marks & Shah, 2005). Psychological well-being is, however, compromised when negative emotions are extreme or very long lasting and interfere with a persons ability to function in his or her daily life. Research has shown that employees psychological well-being has several impact on organization, such as performance, productivity, turnover, and indirect cost (Page and Vela-Broderick, 2009; Wright 2007; Danna and Griffin, 1999). As is widely recognized, enhancing employee well-being is essential for a competitive edge and organizational survival (Amabile, 1988; Shalley, 1995). Unfortunately, employee psychological well-being is usually ignored in human resource management in organization (Baptiste, 2008). However, there are numerous factors which have the potential to influence an employee well-being either positively or negatively. Example job challenge and goal ambiguity (Locke & Latham, 2006). Moreover, when employees do not perceive their goals as specific, work motivation and satisfaction will decline and the well-being of the employee will be affected which will eventually affect the productivity and performance of the organization (Jung, 2014). The reduction in Job satisfaction due to goal ambiguity likely occur because they compromise individual self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997) and challenge the extent to which one understand organizational expectations (Davis & Stazyk, 2014; Panday & Wright, 2006; Wright, 2004). Therefore, instituting a family friendly work environment in the NGO becomes critical and pivotal to the realization of worker loyalty, job productivity and productivity and reduced turnover intention.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
NGOs that have implemented the work life balances programs recognize that worker welfare affects the bottom line of the organization. In today’s competitive world, organizations are spending lot of time and money on worker satisfaction in an effort to improve productivity, and also to help the organization needs (Bhatnagar, 2002). The existing literature demonstrates number of studies that have addressed the importance of work life balance, job productivity and organizational commitment for the organization as well as for the individuals in private organization. However limited study exist that examined the impact of work life balance on job productivity and organizational commitment among workers of private sector specifically NGOs.
However, the productivity of any organization depend on the well-being of it workers (Pase and Vela-Brodrik, 2009). Anything that influences their well-being negatively, will affect their productivity and performance, which may result in the closing down of the organization. The resultant effect of this will be increase in unemployment and other social vices. This is what prompted this study, influence of perceived job demand and work life balance on psychological well being of NGO workers in Oyo State
1.3 Objective of the study
The general objective of this study is to investigate the influence of perceived job demand and work life balance on psychological well being of NGO workers in Oyo State.
The specific objectives are:
- To determine if there is a positive relationship between job demand and work life balance on psychological well being of NGO workers
- To determine if there is a positive relationship between work life balance and workers productivity among NGO worker
- To examine the influence of job demand on the psychological well-being of NGO workers.
1.4 Research question
- Is there any positive relationship between job demand and work life balance on psychological well being of NGO workers?
- Is there is any positive relationship between work life balance and workers productivity among NGO worker?
- Does job demand influence the psychological well-being of NGO workers?
1.4 Research hypothesis
H1: there is a positive relationship between job demand and work life balance on psychological well being of NGO workers
H2: there is a positive relationship between work life balance and workers productivity among NGO worker
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study on completion will help the managers and administrators of NGOs to understand the importance of effective implementation of work life balance policies. Understanding the relationship between work life balance and workers productivity among NGO worker is beneficial for administrators of NGOs, researchers and also for the students. The result will contribute to the Job demand and work life balance literature; this is because the literature in this area is scanty. Besides, the study will help supervisors, managers, human resources personnel and the entire society to know the level of Job demand and work life balance that enhance better psychological well-being. Moreover, it will help managers and employers of labour on how to improve the psychological well-being of their workers by creating enabling environment which is one of the vitamins of psychological well-being.
1.6 Scope of the study
The study looks at the relationship relationship between job demand and work life balance on psychological well being of NGO workers using Oyo State as case study. The study covers only the workers of NGOs.