RATE, IMPLICATION AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS TO EXAMINATION MALPRACTICES AMONG SCIENCE STUDENTS
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The study investigated the rate, implications and possible solutions to examination malpractices among science students of Federal College of Education, Abeokuta. Four research questions were raised and served as guide to the study. Stratified and simple random sampling technique were used to select 10 students each from 100 to 300 level in seven (7) departments of the School of Science, to make a total of two hundred and ten (210) respondents. A self constructed and validated questionnaire was used to collect data for the study while simple percentage and chi-square were used for data analysis. The findings showed that majority of the respondents (90%) of the respondents) agreed that inadequate preparation of students lead to examination malpractice. The research findings also showed that lack of conducive examination halls encourage examination malpractices. (86.7% of the students); with poor study techniques, poor moral training, 78.1% of student agreed that laziness on the part of students is a major cause of examination malpractices, etc, identified as some of the causes of the immoral act. Also, regular campaign against examination practice, development of effective study methods and not cramming are some of the identified measures that could be adopted to reduce the rate of examination malpractices among the students. The researchers recommended among others, the building of a good foundation of self discipline among students right from their respective homes as the task of curbing fraudulent practices in our educational system should not be left to the institutions management, government and examination bodies alone.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In recent years, Nigerian educational system experience different categories of examination malpractices, this evil in our education system has been a major problem which is commonly perpetrated by various stakeholders, the institutions, parents, students, teachers are not left out of the practice.
Looking at the level of the examination malpractice that is upheld in our educational institutions, Afigbo (1996), one would be justifiable worried about the future of the nation where over 80% of people merely pass through educational institutions to obtain just certificate (Ogbajo and Alyawuju, 2004). In essence, people only attend schools these days to obtain certificate without thorough learning.
Considering these ugly trend, all levels of our educational system can hardly be absolved in the milieu from primary to tertiary level, with little or no solution (Afigbo, 1996).
Despite every call for collaborative war against examination malpractice, the degree and faces of malpractice continue to spread and reported in our national dailies (Ogbayi 2004).
The category of people involved as observed by Ogbayi and Alawuya (2004) are those who are supposed to be actively involved in the crusade against this evil but instead are aiding and abetting in one way or the other, these include school proprietors, administrators, parents, personnel’s of examination bodies, teachers etc.
1.1.1 Examination Malpractice
The above concept cannot be fully understand without adequate explanation of each of the keywords which include examination and malpractice.
The Encarta dictionary (2008) defined examination as standardized test designed to objectively measure the academic aptitude of student from varying school background and with different educational experience.
Luman, (1996) sees examination as an instrument for testing, assessment, evaluation and accreditation. It is used for the purpose of selection, placement, certification and promotion.
From these definitions of examination, the purpose of writing examination is to allow the examiner, the class teacher, the school authority and other bodies that conduct examination to determine the extent of knowledge students has acquired after a given course of study.
The oxford dictionary (2008) defines “malpractices” as care-less, wrong or illegal behavior while in a professional job. This means that anything done during the course of an examination in disregarding the laid-down regulations for the conduct of the examination constitute malpractice. In essence, malpractice is a bad practice.
Onyechere, (2005) defines examination malpractice “as any act of wrongdoing that contravenes the rules of acceptable practice before, during and after an examination by anybody in anyway.
Therefore, examination malpractice can be defined as any dishonest and deceitful move, arrangement and plan by a candidate, or school authority, parents/guardians or any examination body, officials used to assist candidates at any stage of writing examination to have adequate pass in the examination (Onyechere, 2005).
Examination malpractices has became systemized as well organized venture which is beneficial to all those involved in it. It has become a menace that has become a normal phenomenon that those engaged in it often see it as a legal act (Onyechere 2005).
Without any controversy, examination malpractice is now a full blown cancer in the tertiary institute of Nigeria. It is very devastating to hear what examination malpractice has turned our campuses into. (Onyechere 2005).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There has been much “hue and cry” concerning the fall in the standard of education in Nigeria. Argument being raised by those in support of this assertion include among others, the myopic academic capability and standard being displayed by students of today’s educational institution vis-à-vis their counterpart of yester-years that have enveloped the entire education system. This study is interested in finding solution to the factors influencing examination malpractices among science students in college of education, Osiele Abeokuta.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This research is intended to determine the rate, implication and solutions of examination malpractices among science students of Federal College of Education, Osiele, Abeokuta as a core study. The research also aimed at suggesting/ proffering solution to the me4nace of examination malpractices.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research will provide probable solutions to the act of examination malpractices in our schools and campuses. Knowledge of probable reasons for examination malpractices will enable school authority to determine the ways or to find the way of curbing such act in the school. The findings will also assist guidance and counsellors to help students in their areas of need in order to discourage examination malpractices. It will also assists the teachers as well as the government in managing and curbing examination malpractices in Nigeria educational institutions.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
For this research, the following questions would guide the researcher in the course of the study.
1. At what rate does examination malpractice occur among science students?
2. What are the likely implications of examination malpractice to science student in federal college of education, Abeokuta?
3. What are the possible solutions that can curb or reduce the rate of examination malpractice?
4. What are the suggested possible penalty measures that should be melted out to student found guilty of examination malpractice?
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research work maybe impaired by co-operation from students and lecturers in the departments to be investigated and time availability.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
MALPRACTICES: Is an illegal and unethical practices which is not approved by any decent society.
EXAMINATION: Is a standardized test designed to objectively measure the academic aptitude of student varying social background and with different educational experience.
EXAMINATION MALPRACTICES: It is any surreptitious dishonest and deceitful move arrangement and plans by a candidates or school authority, parents/guardians or any examination body officials used to assist candidates at any stage of writing examination to have adequate pass in the examination.
MENACE: Something which suggests a threat or brings danger, malpractice is a danger to examination.
CHEATING: Means unfairly, dishonesty or deceitfully. To act dishonesty or deceitfully to win an advantage.