SUPERVISION AS CORRELATE OF STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ONDO STATE
1.1 Background of the study
Supervision is a way of stimulating, guiding, refreshing, encouraging teachers with the hope of achieving the educational set goals. Supervision is an age-long device for improving teachers’ skills (Ogunsaju, 2019). Supervision is one among the many responsibilities of an educational administration performed by school heads, teachers and pupils. Since education is very necessary in our country, supervision must be given a high priority. This is because supervision deals with the basic needs of schools and it helps in provision, maintenance, assisting and proper placement of both human and nonhuman materials in schools. Areas where supervisors assess in school include, the resources (fund), environment, school and community development, records, staff development, and school instructional material. All these areas are vital which such schools will not remain as schools without them. Therefore, these are areas which if much attention is not given to; the educational goals will never be achieved or cannot be realized. Thus, this research attempts to study if there is any impact on the management of these areas.
More so, in some schools where there is the availability of some of the materials, the maintenance culture is mostly lacking. Some of these equipment help in review of the last supervision and inspection. There could be document for teachers’ evaluation, pupil’s records, school inventory records to mention but a few. These document help to trace the past supervision for improvement and decision making. Unfortunately, these could hardly be found in most schools today due to inadequate maintenance of facilities. In fact, in some schools, the erring school head keeps records in his personal house, which is never correct in a normal situation. The most powerful force be deviling education as a system is funding. This cankerworm did not spare school supervision. As mentioned above, an inadequate fund disallows school to conduct several of its activities and programmes. For example inspection suffers due to non staff development, most school heads supervise school activities on the basis of tacit knowledge, in other words, supervision is made on the basis of unconscious experience not through formal training. Also, a problem made by inadequate funds is the inability of schools to procure facilities for record storage. In many schools files are inadequate let alone shelves for documenting records for future uses and decision making. This results to several fake results and claims by nonexistent students (Afolabi, 2018).
In relation to supervision of school environment; schools nowadays are in court with their host communities for claim and disclaim of lands. Most school territorial lands are not known, may be due to lose of records and inadequate supervision of the lands. This problem has resulted to several disagreements and conflict which result to having bad school-community relationship. The bad school-community relationship result to hostility and affect students’ moral control. In fact, in some cases result to theft of the school’s properties. Moreover, inadequate environmental supervision results to schools becoming bushy, thereby making the school prone to fire disaster and snake bite. Most of these problems are associated with the inadequate school managerial skills and funds for managing primary schools in Kaduna State.
In a study conducted in Lagos State schools, Adesina (1971) finds that out of the 38 schools surveyed, only 7 were within the preceding five years and one the preceding two years; the rest had no record of inspectional visitors. All these problems arise because of the exceeding pupils’ population. And also the new introduced basic system of education does not function properly. In order to attain the educational aims and objectives in the country, school supervision must be given more attention on the aspect of instructional work because it is the heart of the school. Teachers’ activities and class activities will be assessed to find out the teachers level of skills, knowledge and ideas. And also to observe the pupils’ capacity on learning activities and to realize whether the instruments provided by the government were adequate and used by both the pupils and the teachers (Adeoye, 2017).
Supervisors will make sure that there is provision of proper school environment with good surroundings, proper cites and area, play ground equipments and garden with good colorful flowers that will beautify the school, proper arrangement of water devices. All these and many more make and encourage teaching and learning in schools. Another area to be well supervised is the school facilities, the supervisors were expected to investigate the provision, maintenance and functioning of school facilities provided by the school management. School facilities involve; library equipments, tables, chairs, lab equipments, play ground facilities, toilets, and urinary materials. The supervisors help in the provision of school facilities and maintenance. The last but not the least area is the inspection of school records. This is a very important way of having the historical, references, documentation and evaluation of teachers, head teachers and the students of the school. School records involves functioning, availability, and maintenance of the school records. If there is proper and regular supervision in this mentioned areas, in our primary school basically, education in Nigeria will be improved and the aims and objectives will be attained not only in secondary school but also in the higher academic level of education and the output or the graduates will be more qualitative in terms of skills and knowledge, because secondary school is the foundation of any knowledge if there is concrete foundation (Ayer, 2018).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
As a result of inadequate and improper supervision, education lacks its quality, rather schools are graduating half-baked graduates, because there are inadequate facilities, no harmony and good relationship between school and the community, no proper maintenance and availability of school records and also the instructional works were not given maximum attention. A careful observation of current trends in Nigeria, in terms of teaching and learning issues in schools shows that there is need for this research in order to study whether school supervision has impact on the school management. It appears that schools are facing a lot of problems which cause the backwardness in educational sector. There is need for this research so as to find out if lack of proper school supervision is one factor among others which cause the school problems. In Nigeria, Local Education Authority takes charge of secondary education supervision and inspection. The most alarming area is that of the personnel. Trained supervisors and inspectors are the most bottle neck in the school system. These trained personnel are not only inadequate, but in some cases do not exist. The few that exist are never trained on the skills of supervision and inspection. This certainly could be the beginning of no control on the available resources (both human and material). Cases of inspectors attempting to use personal interest are many. This indicates lack of knowledge and technical knowhow of the aim of the school inspection. Related to the above, is the non-availability of facilities supervision. Facilities such as vehicles, writing materials and allowances are inadequate in most inspection division in Ondo state. This is also found within the school inspection. The school head masters mostly complain of equipment such as files, papers and other materials that aid their effort in an internal supervision of both human and material resources.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to examine the supervision as correlate of students’ academic performance in secondary schools in Ondo state. The study was set to achieve the following objectives:
- To determine the impact of supervision on instructional work in secondary school in Ondo State
- To examine the impact of supervision on staff development in the schools in Ondo State
- To assess the impact of supervision on community relationship in secondary schools in Ondo State
- To determine the impact of supervision on school facilities in secondary schools in Ondo State
- To examine the impact of supervision on school records in primary schools in Ondo State.