THE ROLE OF THE PRESS IN A DEMOCRACY (THE PRESS IN PERSPECTIVE)
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The study deals with the analysis of the role of the Nigerian press in the democratic struggle in Nigeria. The research method used was the survey method, with the questionnaires and interview as the method for data collection. The study kicks off from the definition of democracy as the government of the people by the people and for the people, including brief definition of some features of democracy like popular sovereignty, popular consultation and periodical elections. Using constentical questionnaires given to eight (80) respondents, the study analyzer the press and its revolution and power a growth and development of the Nigerian press in democracy. Respondents are polled in four categories: Lectures layers politicians and general citizens . Analyses of their responses show that the press is essential for provide my owners for the participation of all members of the society in decision making. As a recommendation the press is urged to put up expensive and effective machinery to cover the nation as a whole and not just the cities and their aliclist inhabitants the press was also admonished to work towards national cohesion and to d this it should consciously purse the goal of getting Nigerian to think and reason as Nigerian rather than alongside the dividends of ethnicity the findings are
1. That the Nigeria press has so for performed its role of adducting and people on the need to make wise choice from competing alternatives during elections.
2. That the role of the press in promoting and entrenching sustainable and effective democracy is very essential.
3. That the Nigerian press has fearlessly and responsibly performed its roles of not only informing people to make wise choices, but also safeguarding.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page II
Table of contents VIII
List of tables and figures XI
Statement of problem 7
Rationale and Purpose of the study 9
Significance of the study 11
Research Questions 12
Research Hypothesis 13
Definitions of terms 14
Limitation of the study 15
LITERATURE REVIEW 16
Press its Revolution and power growth and
development of Nigeria press Expected Roes of press in Democracy Philosophies or Typologies concept of freedom of press in democracy 31
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY METHOD 37
Sampling Procedure 38
Data Collection Instrument 39
Data collection method 40
Data Analysis 40
DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDING 42
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Recommendation and 54
LIST OF TABLE
TABLE 1 : The respondents view of the press roles in Nigeria democracy .
TABLE 11 : Respondents rating of the press roles in Nigeria democracy so far.
TABLE 111: The respondents” view of the major roles o the press in Nigerian Democracy
TABLE 1V: . How far has the press performed it roles.
TABLE V: respondents view on whether Nigerian press is free to perform its roles.
TABLE V1: The threat to press freedom in Nigeria.
1.1 BACGROUND OF THE STUDY
Democracy in its simplest definition means government of the people, of the people and for the people. It its often referred to as government of popular participation, even though sound schools of thought will argue that democracy in the contemporary society cannot accommodate every member of a society, what can be possible is representative participation.
However, in its original form and as practiced in ancient Greek city stated and approximated of New England town meetings and swiss contions, Democracy simply means full participation of all citizens in the daily routine of administration of community affairs. Literally however, democracy means government of the people, by the people and for the people. This is derivative from two Greek word that make up the word “Democracy” which literally means people to be ruled.
Yet. Some western political theorists for example, kotler how holds the view that democracy is only a system of government that guarantees direct maximum popular control over the decision.
From the foregoing, it is clear that democracy as the ancient Greek developed it entails the participation of every member of a society. Meanwhile, the participation will be difficult to obtain or guarantee in modern societies or state, in its purest form. What could be obtained is therefore representation. To this and Robert Dahl and others, believe that is safe only in the hands of popularly elected elite whose powers are limited and who can be removed while in the officer by the people whenever their wishes are not being not. Thus, the focus of the thesis is on effective popular control over the elected representative of the people as opposed to direct participation, which is in modern control, neither desirable nor attainable. Invariably, what we call democracy today is representative government. If means that the citizens should choose those they feel could represent their interest and government on their behalf according to the principles of majority rule. In other words, the philosophical basis of representative government is the idea of popular sovereignty.
Essentially whatever may be the difference is important to note that ideal democracy, guarantees the government that will be in the interest of the people. The government that will be responsive to popular wishes and guarantee that every citizen must have some share in the decision –making process either by way of directs participation, by way of electing the decision makes and popular control.
Indeed, democracy must hold certain common promises that makes it 50 attractive to all who profess or aspire to practices it. In its quality, shunning all forms of class differences. In its economic sense, it attempts to level inequalities in wealth. And in total and political sense, it aims basically at securing the consent of the governed, protecting his human personality and achieving the well.
If it is agreed that these are the goals of democracy, to how than can a governmental system achieve the goal ? Or if any goal system claim to level itself as democratic, what features do are look for a system. Perhaps, an answer to these questions would help in quintessence of democracy.
ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF DEMOCARCY
POPUAR SOVEREIGNITY: For a democratic system of government, it is necessary that sovereign power resides in the people. If the ultimate command of fill and exclusive legal power, command of fully and exclusive legal power, what we have is autocracy or dictatorship and if it is on the hands of a few people , we have oligarchy, aristocracy and not democracy.
EQUAL OPPORTNITY FOR ALL: This implies that the equal access of all members of the society to the political decision making process must be guarantee. It also requires economic independence and job security. More importantly, it means one man, each vote weighted equally with another. Every individual must not only have the right to vote but also the right to be voted for in any election.
AVAILABILITY OF CHOICE BETWEEN ALTERNATIVE
In democratic setting it is compulsory opportunity to choose from competing alternative, political to complement the peoples right to political equation, genie alternative policy programmes must be presented to the people at elections to enable them make real choices. This is than achieved by organizing the political elite into factions or parties with different political prgrammes.
REGULAR PERIODICAL ELECTIONS: This has dual advantages of providing an orderly changes of government and of providing a channel for the expression of the citizens wishes at regular intervals. The people can therefore be fee to make a reasonably choice out of competing alternative political ideals and leaders.
POPULAR CONSULTATION: Popular consultation is also a way of sounding the wishes as regards to what policies they want to adopt. After identifying the wishes, the ruling elite must ensure that the wishes are translated into public policies decisions is the satisfaction of the people. The kind of two way communication envisaged have requires a public that is reasonably in formed on civil matter and adequate and open channel of communication, an intelligent and independent press, and freedom of association and discussion,
It is under this situation that the citizens can contribute to the decision making process, through public opinioned in speech or writing in associations, group or public meetings praise or blame the government and criticize policies with suggestion for other lines of action without hindrance.
WELL INFORMED ELECTORATE: Although the previous discussed features has identified the essence of communication in democracy it is still necessary to isolate it as an important different characteristics of democracy. Essentially, the idea of democracy thrives better where the voters are literate and well informed this view is not heold so as to equate democracy people with educated people. This is more practicable in the modern societies where every issue is given wide publicity on radio, Tv and the press.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
It is now clear that democracy is a philosophy that is based on the a aforementioned principles and features. It has the capability to ensure popular participation, freedom of political action and to draw upon the talents of the greatest number of members of a polity for the promotion and satisfaction of common interests. Basically, inclusion in power means collusion in its benefit.
However, the principles and the benefits of democracy cannot be attained and have not being attained any where in the world without the power and roles of the press. In other worlds, the role of the press in democracy cannot be overemphasized. It is observable that are interviewer with communication. Any attempt to promote democracy must start with the education of the people, so that they can appreciate the choices be fore then and acquire the ability and character to be have rationally and participate actively in the process of governance. Without education, people cannot understand the essence of democracy and general issue of public interest and in such a situation, it would be presumptions to expect the people to exercise independent judgement or tolerate others point of view and political choice or decision. This is where the press comes into democracy and that is why democracy cannot be separated from the press.
Democracy involves a responsibly a responsibly understanding of rights and obligations by the people, in every situation and also involves the appreciation of the nature and dimensions of issues to be decided. The understanding and appreciation process are done by the press in any democratic setting. But the ability of the press to functions in broadcasting the base of information showing and in democratizing public established particularly in Nigeria.
In other needs, it is already established that, the press has a profound effect on the thinking of the people, of least. Barnard. Cohen has said that the press may not be successful much of time in telling people what to think, but it is stunningly successful in telling its reads what to think about” but the question of how the Nigeria, press have been able to show the civil society the light to follow towards a proper functioning democracy still remains unanswered empirically.
Therefore, this study is set out to find out what really the roles the Nigerian press in particular has performed in entrenching and sustaining democracy in Nigeria. The study shall this endeaour to find out how much effort has been made by the Nigerian press to strengthen the resoling of those forces and institutions that are designed or oriented towards the sustenance of democracy.
1.3 RATIONALE AND PURPOSE FOR THE STUDY
The Nigerian press has been criticized for subverting the course of democracy rather than furthering it. Take for example accusation against certain section of the press often referred to as Lagos / Badin axis as promoting sectioned interest rather than n than national. Nigerian Tribunal which is owned by chief Obafemi Awolowo clan has been variously accrued of contributing to the fall of the second republic as its consist. Tent criticism of Alhaji Shehu shagari government led to military intervention of December 31, 1973.
Equally, the role of the Nigerian press under the military, especially after month of the annulment the June 12, 1993 presidential election has come under criticism by those in government. Although the press was in the vanguard of agitation for democratic rules, many continued to accuse the press as playing a sub-versive role in the country.
The purpose of the study is therefore to find out the contributions of the press, particularly the Nigeria press in the development, entrenchment and sustenance of democracy. What are the roles of the press in democracy in generad and how has the Nigerian press fore in performing the roles are the major knowledge the study intends to find out.
In finding out all these, these study shall also analyze the legal and other constraint on the expected roles of Nigerian press in democracy struggle.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study shall be of immense benefit to the society as a whole. It will be beneficial particularly to the Nigerian furnish, by affording the knowledge of how they have fared since independence on the enthronement and sustenance of democracy in Nigeria. The study shall let then know the true position in the democracy struggle in Nigeria and shall let then know how well or otherwise they have performed their expected roles in the democracy struggle. The study hall open up to the journalism the constant hazards and obstacle that have impended or hinder the performance of their roles in enthronement of democracy in Nigeria and shall give break light on how to remove the constraints.
Another major benefactor and its officials. It would also afford these group of people the knowledge of how they have helped or hindered the press in performing its expected roles in democratic struggle. There by, the study shall be a source of aspiration for change in their attitude towards press and their roles in a democratic dispensation.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In order to achieve that purpose of study, the following questions shall be answered by the study.
1. What are the roles of the press on democracy.
2. How has the Nigeria press few in the performance of its expected roles democratic struggle.
3. Has the Nigerian press monitored the events nation wide and beyond, to reflect sufficient concern for democratic processes and values in their assignment ?
4. Are Nigerian press socially responsible or not in their attempt to enthrone and sustain democracy in Nigeria ?
5. Has Nigerian press performed well in informing the Nigerian populace and providing useful fore for discussion and debate on all aspects of national and human existence ?
6. What are the constants of the Nigeria press in performing its roles for democratic enthronement ?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H 1 – The role of the press in any democracy is very essential.
H0 – The role of the press in any democracy is not very essential.
H2 – The Nigeria press has not performed effective and positive roles in Nigerian democracy.
H0 – The Nigerian press has not performed effective and positive roles in Nigeria democracy.
H3 – The Nigerian press has fore most in the roles of informing and educating people in order to make a wise choice in election.
H0 – The Nigerian press has not fore most in the roles of informing and educating people in order to make a wise choice in election.
H4 –Nigeria press is completely free to perform its roles.
H0 – Nigerian press is not completely free to perform its roles.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS DEMOCRACY
CONCEPTUAL – Democracy has to do with a country with government which encourages and shows rights of citizenship such as freedom of speech, religion, opinion and association, the assertion of the rule of law majority rule, accompanied by respect for the rights of minorities.
OPERTIONAL :- Democracy is the type of government, which ensure popular participation, freedom of political action and draw upon talents of the greatest number of members of a polity for the promotion and satisfaction of common interests particularly in Nigerian polity.
CONCEPTUAL – Press refers to pointed periodicals the
newspaper generally and journalist.
OPERATIONAL – Press how reefers to the different mass
Media including mass, media practitioners
In Nigeria whose job is dissemination of
Information and educating the people on the
Need for democracy and its values among the
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is hinted by time and financial constraint couple with the ethnic rivaling and religious wars in the country.
However, a more comprehensive study will involve large sampled size can be embark upon to expand the frontier of knowledge.