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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A MINI MICROPHONE

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A MINI MICROPHONE
ABSTRACT

A mini microphone is a tranducer that converts a sound wave into an electrical signal in which the voltage and current are proportional to the original sound. To perform this task microphones use a thin membrane, known as a diaphragm, which mimics the function of the human ear.
To perform this task microphones use a thin membrane, known as a diaphragm, which mimics the function of the human ear. When sound waves strike a microphone’s diaphragm, they cause it to move within an electro-magnetic field, which, in turn, creates a variance in an electrical current. This signal is then transmitted to output devices, which reproduce the original sound wave and reinforce it. Typical output devices for microphones are power amplifiers, sound mixers, PA systems and audio recorders. For a mini microphone to sound louder it must consist of microphone (diaphragm) and a inbuilt preamplifier.
The internal configurations of mini microphones used for 99% of all audio systems have one of three basic designs, which are often used to organize microphones into distinct categories. These three categories are dynamic microphones, condenser microphones, and ribbon microphones. The link between the microphone’s diaphragm and the output device can be either wired or wireless. Wired mini microphones are physically connected by a cable to the output device. Wireless mini microphones, which are more portable, must come with both a transmitter (either FM or InfraRed) and a compatible receiver. But in the case of this project, a wired mini microphone was designed which composed of a preamplifier – which pick up the sound from the diaphragm and then send the audio signal to an amplifier for amplification.

 
 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page
Approval Page
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table of Content
CHAPTER ONE
1.0     Introduction
1.1     components of mini microphone
1.2     objective of the course
1.3     significance of the study
CHAPTER TWO
2.0     Literature review
2.1     review of history of invention
2.2  review of types of mini microphone
CHAPTER THREE
3.0     Construction
3.1     circuit  block diagram
3.2  circiut diagram
3.3     circuit parts list
3. 4  circuit description and operation
3.5   component description
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0     Construction Procedure and Testing
4.1     Casing and Packaging
4.2     Assembling of Sections
4.3     Testing of System Operation
4.4      Cost Analysis

CHAPTER FIVE 
5.0     Conclusion
5.1     Recommendation
5.2     References

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                        INTRODUCTION
A mini microphone is a small acoustic-to-electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal. Mini Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, tape recorders, karaoke systems, hearing aids, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering, FRS radios, megaphones, in radio and television broadcasting and in computers for recording voice, speech recognition, VoIP, and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic checking or knock sensors.
Most mini microphones today use electromagnetic induction (dynamic microphone), capacitance change (condenser microphone), piezoelectric generation, or light modulation to produce an electrical voltage signal from mechanical vibration.

1.1                   COMPONENTS OF MINI MICROPHONE
The sensitive transducer element of a microphone is called its element or capsule. A complete mini microphone also includes a housing, some means of bringing the signal from the element to other equipment, and often an electronic circuit (preamplifier circuit) to adapt the output of t-he capsule to the equipment being drive.

1.2                             OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of the study which should be understands to be the purpose or the aim of designing and constructing a mini microphone.
The purpose of this work is to design and construct a mini microphone, to know how diaphragm and preamplifier work in a mini microphone and also to understand the function and application of the mini microphone such as in production of sound in music and video industries.

1.3                               SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This study exposes me to the function of a mini microphone such as that mini microphone converts the pressure waves caused by sound into vibrations within a coil which transforms the vibrations into electric signals. These electric signals can then be sent by wire or wireless to a preamplifier (amplifier) or mixer of some sort for output to speakers or perhaps a recording device.
This work also exposed me to different kind of microphones and their applications and the function of microphone diaphragm and preamplifier circuits in a microphone. 

 

CHAPTER TWO
2.0                                             LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
In order to speak to larger groups of people, there was a desire to increase the volume of the spoken word. The earliest known device to achieve this dates to 600 BC with the invention of masks with specially designed mouth openings that acoustically augmented the voice in amphitheatres. In 1665, the English physicist Robert Hooke was the first to experiment with a medium other than air with the invention of the “lovers’ telephone” made of stretched wire with a cup attached at each end. In 1874, Ernst von Siemens described the “dynamic” or “moving-coil” transducer, though the first result of this invention was not the microphone, but its adaptation in 1920 to make a loudspeaker. During the mid-19th century a number of inventors came up with devices that led to the invention of the first practical electrical telephone patented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876.
Inventors Emile Berliner and Thomas Edison were inspired to improve this and both went on to design and build the first carbon microphone (then called transmitter) in mid-1877, within a month of each other. After a long legal dispute, Edison was awarded the patent.

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