DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF 2000W INVERTER SYSTEM
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This project carried out is the construction of 2KVA inverter. It is an Electrical /Electronic device that is used to convert direct current (DC) to alternating current AC, which possible lead to power supply enhancement to the society.
This project was constructed to over come the failure of electricity in the society and also help in protecting electrical and electronic equipment that is used in the home or company. The converted AC can be at any required voltage and frequency with the use of appropriate transformer, switching, control circuit, multivibrators.
Inverters are commonly use to supply AC power from DC source, such as solar panels or batteries but in this construction battery was used. The arm of the construction of the inverter is that when there is power or failure interruption from the power generating Authority, the inverter will trigger from the dc to AC source where by giving steady electricity.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
It is a well know fact today that electrical power is not reliable. All over the world, there is significant electrical power supply interruption. Because of these electrical power interruption many electrical equipments have either developed problem or even stopped working entirely. Hence this has crippled many business thereby affecting even the economy of many countries as Nigeria. Also there is increase in occurrence of power disturbance, which can be viewed as a form pollution. High voltage spikes and momentary voltage drops are therefore common. These power disturbance may affect the performance of sensitive equipment in private and corporate organization causing critical loss of data and even damage to equipment.
In Nigeria today, it is not an over-statement to talk about the epileptic supply of electric power. This has become the order of the day such that many Nigerians now view these power outages as “Normal” and part of their daily life. A wide range of factors have been identified for this problem. They include natural disasters vandalism, maintainability sustainability inadequacies and lack of Local content. The problem of poor quality power supply can not be properly addressed without a review of other factors such as lack of political will to invest adequately in power sector, absence of replacement policy resulting in absolute equipment, unsustainable human capacity building and inadequate reward and remuneration system to motivate human resources term to perform well.
The progress made in developing alternate source of energy over the last decades has shown that independent power system are not only possible but also very practical. In fact a wide variety of generating equipment is now available to allow individuals take advantages of just any renewable source of energy. For a number of reasons, however, most of there system produce only direct current (DC) and often do only at how voltages. Nevertheless, it is generally agreed that the greatest and most usefully form of current is the alternating current (AC), since these exist in the vast majority of homes.
Therefore, there arises the need to be able to convent Direct current (DC) to an alternating current (AC) that will be of a constant frequency and also be used to power electrical circuits either in homes or industries.
An inverter is an electrical device that convent direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC), the converted AC can be at any required voltage and frequencies, with the use of appropriate transformer, switching and control circuits inverter are commonly used to AC power from D.C sources such as panels or batteries.
The electrical inverter e.g 1000w, 220-24ov, 50HZ, is a high power electronic oscillator. It is so named because early mechanical AC to DC converters were made to work in reverse and thus were “inverted” to convert DC to AC. The inverter performs the opposite function of a rectifier.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
In this project, a 2KVA DC to A.C inverter will be constructed and analyzed. The primary objectives or undertaking this project is for the following reasons:
1. To design an electrical system capable of producing power form a 12V D.C battery that will produce an output of 2KVA, 50HZ,220-240V which will be used to drive electricity appliances.
2. The project is also aimed at exposing the HND student to simple electrical design and building of electrical circuits.
3. The project (2000.00, 220- 240V Inverter) will also help the student to understand the basic principles of operation of an inverter circuit and its relevance in the society.
4. The project is also aimed at introducing the principle of circuit analysis.
1.3 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
The project that has been undertaken ie 2000w, 240 – 240 Volt invert has four stages or units. These units includes.
i. Supply unit
ii. Inverter unit
iii. Step-up transformer unit
iv. Triggering unit
The scope of this project is primarily to show how the low voltage D.C power supplied is used to energized the circuit. It will also show how into a low voltage A.C. The step up transformer will turn the low voltage A.C inform of square wave to a higher voltage A.C. inform of square wave to a higher voltage A.C inform of square wave. The triggering unit provides the triggering pulse needed by the MOSFET to operate.
1.4 ORGANIZATION OF THE PROJECT
The 2000w, 220 – 240v, 50H2 inverter is constructed using the following components:
Resistors, Capacitors, Semiconductor diode, Transistors (MOSFET), integrated circuits (ICS), the MOSFET is the major component used in the inversion of Direct current (D.C) to alternating current (AC).