DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN AC VOLTAGE REGULATOR/STABILIZER
This project is titled the design and construction of an AC Automatic Voltage Stabilizer. It is designed to meet up with the AC voltage safety, stability and accuracy demand in industries and in homes. Voltage stabilizers are useful in devices such as computer Power supplies, alternators and central power station generator plants, voltage regulators control the output of the plant. In an electric power distribution system, voltage regulators may be installed at a substation or along distribution lines so that all customers receive steady voltage independent of how much power is drawn from the line. An AC Automatic voltagestabilizer is designed to automatically maintain a constant AC voltage level. An AC Voltage Stabilizer may be a simple “feed-forward” design or may include negative feedback control loops. It makes use an electromechanical mechanism, and other electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC voltages.
This project is designed to stabilize an AC input voltage of 160-250V to give an AC output voltage of 240V at 50Hz automatically. The automatic feature can be achieved by the electronics devices used such voltage comparator IC, electro-magnetic device (relay), auto- transformer and other electronics devices. In this project, an automatic ac voltage stabilizer was designed to control and stabilize an AC input voltage of 160-250V to produce an output of 240V all at 50Hz.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENT
- BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
- AIM/OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
- APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT
- LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
- SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
- PROJECT ORGANISATION
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 HISTORITICAL BACKGROUND OF VOLTAGE STABILIZER
2.2 REVIEW OF AC VOLTAGE STABILIZERS
2.3 CONSTANT-VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER
2.4 REVIEW OF AN AUTOTRANSFORMER AND ITS OPERATION
3.0 CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY
3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE SYSTEM
3.2 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
3.3 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
3.4 SYSTEM OPERATION
3.5 COMPONENTS LIST
3.6 VOLTAGE STABILIZER CONTROLLER SECTION
3.7 THE BUCK-BOOST PRINCIPLE
3.8 PULSES-DRIVE CIRCUIT AND THE TRANSFORMER
3.9 DESCRIPTION OF MAJOR COMPONENTS USED
4.1 CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE AND TESTING
4.2 CASING AND PACKAGING
4.3 ASSEMBLING OF SECTIONS
4.4 TESTING OF SYSTEM OPERATION
4.5 COST OF PRODUCTION
In Nigeria and some other parts of the world today, the electricity power supply to consumers (at homes and industries) are not maintained at a stipulated voltage say 240 volts. But the electronics gadgets and some other power operated machines, that we use in our homes, offices and industries requires power with constant or nearly constant voltage for their efficiency, and to avoid damage by the voltage.
Voltage stabilizer is an electronic control circuit or device that is capable of providing a constant or nearly constant output voltage even when there is variation in load or input voltage as low as 90 volt can be boast up to 240 volt by stabilizer at output stage without any voltage fluctuation.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
There are many fundamental different types of stabilizers in use some of which are electron mechanically tap changer, solid state tap changer etc. voltage, stabilizer came into being not by normal design and plain, but as a means of solving electrical “Crisis” situation. This crisis situation does rarely occur in developed countries of the world such as Britain, American, Germany.
Their system of generation, transmission and distribution of electricity is such that a devoid of variation of fluctuation in the supplied voltage. Now, by the definition given by K.G Jackson and R. Feinberg, a voltage stabilizer is a piece device incorporated in a circuit to maintain a constant output voltage from a poorly generated power supply. A voltage stabilizer like any other piece of equipment is a combination of many electrical and like any other piece of equipment is a combination of many electrical and electronic and circuit with the aim of getting the assemble to perform a specified desired task or function.
Therefore a voltage stabilizer consist for two main basic unit
- The transformer unit
- The control circuit
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
The objective of this work is to construct a device whose function is to maintain constant voltage and power line conditioning to the equipment load under a wide variety of conditions, even when the utility input voltage, frequency or system load vary widely. The AVR shall consist of an all copper, multiple tapped, triple shielded isolation transformer and contain independently controlled inverse parallel electronic switches for each of the 7 taps per phase to provide tight voltage regulation. The phase current shall be monitored for zero current recognition to initiate any required tap change. Linear devices shall be used for line synchronization to prevent phase shift errors normally associated with simple CT zero current crossing acquisition.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
The Automatic voltage regulator is a voltage regulator planned to mechanically sustain a constant voltage level. It is very device to maintain a constant voltage level. It can also use electromechanical components. It can be used majorly to regulate one or more DC or AC depending on the design. Therefore, the functions of this equipment are very wide and can be used majorly for various purposes. Electronic voltage regulators can be used majorly for various purposes. It has various functions like it can be used mainly for stabilizing the DC voltages that can be used by the processor and its main parts. In central power station generator plants and automobile alternators, voltage regulators control the output of the plant. In this distribution system, it may be installed at along distribution lines so that all clients recognize steady voltage self-regulating of how much power is drawn from the line. There are many functions of operating the AC depending upon the design. It is very good option to maintain the constant voltage level. Automatic voltage regulator is a superb invention of science, which is an electric device designed to authorize a constant voltage in a settable level. It is very helpful to maintain the preferred voltage for the generators within particular limits. The main working of it depends upon the laws of electromechanical physics. It consists of numerous vigorous and unreceptive electrical parts like thermostats, adopters and diodes. Apart from this, there are many reliable Automotive Suppliers in India that produce many kinds of equipments like generator, regulator and other major parts. They are well known for various kinds of functions and various specifications. They not only produce higher quality products, but also they will provide some additional benefits with the parts of these equipments. Auto Voltage Regulator Generator is the most important part for great amplifier to work. Its types are many, but they are highly in functionality and better performance. They are well equipped with self functioning controls and starts up functions which make them very easy and useful to handle easily and completely. They have different sizes, shapes and colors. There are also automatic regulators which are so small that they can be easily places on a small printed circuit board. They are very easy and portable to handle. They may cover a higher volume of small house sometimes. Therefore, there is a wide variety in the automatic voltage regulator sand each has its own specifications.
1.4 THE SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
The design and construction of an Automatic Voltage Regulator is the project we are construction. We are working on this machine because we have some idea on how this machine can be constructed and also on how it works. We are also doing this because we want to learn more about it.
As we have mentioned earlier, this device is a protective device that protects our electrical and electronic appliances out of current and voltage fluctuation. This is how it works. When this system is plugged into the socket or supply, it will receive a minimum voltage of 100v and filter the current and voltage thereby brings out suitable voltage output to be used by the devices in it.
So, we are building or constructing this device to reduce risk and damages the fluctuation of current / voltage caused by power fluctuations.
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
The system design shall be capable of operating at an input frequency range of -15% to +10% of nominal, without clearing protective devices or causing component failure within the AVR. When generator or utility power is restored, the AVR shall automatically restart. Upon turn on or restart, the output of the AVR shall not exceed the specified output regulation limits.
If the input voltage or frequency exceeds programmable minimum or maximum set points for a programmable time period (factory set for 10 seconds), the AVR shall electronically shut off. When electrical parameters are back within acceptable limits for a programmable time period (factory set for 60 seconds), the AVR shall automatically restart to provide conditioned power to the load. If the input parameters are within acceptable limits, but the output voltage is outside of acceptable programmed limits, the AVR shall electronically shut off and require a manual restart.
The AVR shall be capable of operating at 100% rated load capacity continuously, 200% rated load for 10 seconds, 500% rated load for 1 second and 1000% rated load for 1 cycle. Operating efficiency shall be a minimum of 96%, typical at full load.
Transformer winding shall be continuous copper with electrostatic tripled shielding and K-13 rated for the purpose of handling harmonic currents.
Response Time: The AVR shall respond to any line voltage variation in 1/2 cycle while operating linear or non-linear loads, with a load power factor of 0.60 of unity. Peak detection of the voltage sine wave shall not be permitted to avoid inaccurate tap switching due to input voltage distortion.
Operating Frequency: The AVR shall be capable of operating at +10% to -15% of the nominal frequency, 50Hz or 60Hz.
Rating: this device shall be rated at kVA.
Access Requirements: The AVR shall have removable panels on the front, rear and sides as required for ease of maintenance and/or repair.
Metering: An input meter is provided to display line voltages
Ventilation: The AVR isolation transformer shall be designed for convection cooling. If fan cooling is required for the solid state electronic switching devices.
1.6 APPLICATIONS OF STABILIZERS
Fluctuation in electricity is one of the major problems that affect their production. Due to high demand of electricity to sustain their operations, it results to low voltage output which can damage equipments. Therefore, these companies need specialized devices to help them protect their equipments from early wear and tear. Voltage regulators are electromechanical constituents that control the regular voltage outputs. During peak consumption of electricity, the sudden flow of power can damage electric or electronic machines. On the other hand, if there is low output of voltage, a machine may fail to function. Servo Voltage Stabilizer provide safe output to guard varieties of equipments including ultra modernized music systems, medical equipments LCD, Home Theater, industrial machines and more. They are designed with special features to protect equipments which include line noise spike protection, primary switching technology, auto reset, and overload cutoff protection. In order to preserve the life of machines, these devices are recommendable in any operation. They assure that machines are working well all the time especially in peak timings. Basically, these equipments are used to control the input voltage fluctuations and at the same time, to maintain an output voltage of +/-0.5% accuracy. They also help lower MDI and in saving power consumption. There is plenty of Servo Voltage Stabilizer Manufacturers India that provides range of stabilizers. They serve range of applications in many industries e.g., Information Technology, Data processing, Chemical and Textile, Air conditioning, medical and more. During power interruptions, generators play a very important role in supplying continuous electricity. These equipments give the residents, workers and industries the peace of mind that they can continue doing their work without breaks. These emergency power system guarantees that there will be normal circuits and they can continue whatever important tasks they are doing. For businesses, power interruptions can lead to lost of sales and profits. With assurance that everything will run well even without electricity, electricity standby power assures full performance of every equipment at all times. Since stabilizers are needed to maintain every electric or electronic device, stabilizer for generator guarantees that they are working at full performance even for a long time. Generators are big investment for any home or business. Therefore, they must be protected too from electrical surges. Generator Voltage Regulators are specially designed to control the voltage output. Regularly, the voltage output must be in the range of 120 to 240 volts. Therefore, these generator stabilizers provide support that equipments will function at their best even in the event of power fluctuations or interruptions.
1.7 PROJECT WORK ORGANISATION
The various stages involved in the development of this project have been properly put into five chapters to enhance comprehensive and concise reading. In this project thesis, the project is organized sequentially as follows:
Chapter one of this work is on the introduction to an automatic voltage stabilizer. In this chapter, the background, significance, objective limitation and problem of an automatic voltage stabilizer were discussed.
Chapter two is on literature review of an automatic voltage stabilizer. In this chapter, all the literature pertaining to this work was reviewed.
Chapter three is on design methodology. In this chapter all the method involved during the design and construction were discussed.
Chapter four is on testing analysis. All testing that result accurate functionality was analyzed.
Chapter five is on conclusion, recommendation and references.