Home / PUBLIC HEALTH PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS / THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SELECTED SOFT DRINKS AND EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SELECTED SOFT DRINKS AND EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SELECTED SOFT DRINKS AND EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SELECTED SOFT DRINKS AND EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1     Background of the study

Emergency contraception is the contraception administered to awoman after unprotected intercourse. In the past it has also been known as postcoital contraception or morning after pills (Bouali and Ulmann, 2019). Emergency contraception is needed when intercourse is unexpected and without prior contraceptive coverage. Other indications include failure of barrier methods like the slipping or breakage of condoms, and after rape. This emergency contraception may be an effective way to reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies and induced abortions (Haspels, 2018). Emergency contraception is essentially female driven, so its use and success rests mainly on how women perceive and practice it. Levonorgestrel-only pills and combined oral contraceptives are the most common emergency contraceptive methods available in Nigeria; they can be obtained over the counter from patent medical and pharmaceutical shops. Unconventional techniques of emergency contraception are common among young women in our setting. As much as 75% of sexually active (14–19) teenage girls have been reported to have some form of perceived contraception device such as laxatives, local potash, “white quinine” and menstrogen pills in the South-West geopolitical zone of the country (Haspels, 2018).

According to Akerele, (2019) researchers at Obafemi Awolowo University in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, collected semen samples from 7 healthy men 25-30 years old who had abstained from sex for at least 5 days in order to examine the spermicidal action of 4 soft drinks (Krest bitter lemon, Afri-Cola, Coca-Cola, and Pepsi-Cola), the effect of increased temperature of the drinks on spermicidal action, and the effect of changing the soft drinks from an acid, as it comes from the factory, (ph 2.4) to an alkaline (pH 7.5). Increasing the temperature of the soft drinks from room temperature (22 degrees Celsius) to body temperatures (37 degrees Celsius) did not significantly change the spermicidal action any of the soft drinks. All soft drinks with an acid pH, except Coca-Cola, had a significantly lower percent of sperm motility than those with an alkaline pH (0-42.3% vs. 20-52.1%; p < .001). In fact, Krest bitter lemon in its factory form (acid pH) completely immobilized all spermatozoa within 1 minute after the researchers diluted the semen with the soft drink. Alkaline Coca-Cola had a significantly lower percent of sperm motility than did acid Coca-Cola (35.8% vs. 46.5%; p < .001). Other than Krest bitter lemon, the significant decreases in sperm motility were not enough to prevent pregnancy. It was therefore recommended that researchers should test Krest bitter lemon for effectiveness as a postcoital contraceptive. If indeed it proves effective, it has great potential as such a contraceptive among the poor in the densely population in Nigeria since it is readily available and inexpensive (Akerele, 2019). It against this background that this study intends to investigate the effectiveness of Krest soft drink as an emergency contraception among adolescents in Abuja.

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