THE ROLE OF SCIENCE LABORATORY EQUIPMENTS IN THE ACADEMIC COMPREHENSION OF STUDENTS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
1.1 Background of the study
Each country develops its own education system, which evolves to meet the challenges of changing times. The Indian education system must also face several new choices, opportunities and challenges to ensure the implementation of a modernized, advanced and quality education system at all levels. The report of the National Indian Knowledge Commission reiterates its commitment to provide excellence in the education system to meet the 21st century knowledge challenges and enhance India’s competitive advantage in the field of knowledge (NKC). , 2019).
Secondary education at all levels serves as a link between basic education and higher education. Therefore, it plays a very important role, because the future of a child depends to a large extent on the type of education he receives at the secondary level. In addition to strengthening the roots of parenting, secondary education can help lead the child to a bright future. The National Education Policy (NPE, 2011) called for strengthening secondary education by promoting environmental awareness and training in science and laboratory equipment.
They share a common but important goal in creating an educational environment that is considered effective for teaching and learning science, recognizing that scientific breakthroughs are the key to progress in all areas of life. Science gives students the means to better understand the world around them. This promotes curiosity and critical thinking. It highlights the relationship between man and nature and reminds us that natural resources are limited and very valuable. Science permeates all areas of activity around us. We are surrounded by its products, from audio players to digital instruments to computers. We all need a scientific culture to survive in this fast-growing world (Eurydice European Unit, 2016).
Researchers also believe that effective science education is essential for: a) Ensuring a satisfactory level of scientific literacy in society as a whole and preparing the next generation of scientists and engineers for the advancement of higher education and higher education. beyond (Committee on Laboratory Science and Equipment, 2016); b) Ensure the future of practical science in schools by discouraging inappropriate methods (Broers, 2016). Secondary science sometimes shows a more “stereotyped” approach to practical activities that should lead to binding or obvious conclusions. Science education addresses seven aspects. Innovation in science education: (future) teachers and teacher educators, development of scientific thought through research, contextual dimensions of science learning, use of information laboratory equipment, science teachers and ” common sense, “response to gender differences and the role of evaluation in determining what is taught
The link between teachers’ knowledge and scientific abilities, the way they teach science and the consequences for students, depends on the development of scientific thought and the teachers themselves (Eurydice European Unit, 2016).
On the other hand, science laboratory equipment is also very important because it is used in all areas of life, including education. The educational system, which is the most important factor for development, is increasingly in a hurry to use new technologies to prepare our future generations for the knowledge and skills they will need in the years to come. Our educational system strives to use a variety of laboratory equipment in all fields, including science, administration and research. Laboratory equipment continues to impact academic transactions involving teaching, learning, research and extension activities at universities, colleges and other institutions. The use of mobile phones, televisions, computers, the Internet and machines is part of our daily lives. In fact, we use laboratory equipment for instruction, communication, transportation, information navigation, entertainment and all types of life needs. Due to scientific and laboratory equipment, most processes in human life have been either simplified, adapted and cost-effective
Science laboratory equipment is used in providing learning experiences and self-directed instructions to a learner using tutorial and simulation packages, with assistance from an attendance in. In developed countries, the use of modern lab equipments as a teaching tool has reached an advanced stage (Akundeye,2005).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Teachers continue to stick to the traditional method of chalking and speech; the practice that leaves them in the current demand for an improved learning system in the science curriculum. Among the perceived benefits of using science laboratory equipment in schools, it is interesting to teach and learn. Distance learning assistance; help teachers be up to date; Improve the quality of work of teachers and students.
Capacity development of science laboratory equipment staff in secondary schools is low. This affects the performance of high school students in science. It is evident that most schools in the study areas lacked computer teachers. The shortage of computer science teachers may be related to the lack of laboratory equipment and the motivation of teachers to take training programs in laboratory equipment. The use of laboratory equipment in secondary schools poses other problems, including the provision of less standard laboratory equipment, the high cost of standard science laboratory equipment, the lack of adaptability to the use of laboratory equipment, laboratory equipment in teaching and learning, lack of constant feeding and lack of perspective The use of laboratory equipment for science teaching in secondary schools is responsible for performance academic objectives of the program. The above comments therefore emphasize the need to examine the impact of laboratory equipment on the academic performance of upper secondary students.
1.3 Research Questions
The study was mainly focused on the following research questions
- To what extent does comprehension level of the group of secondary school students learning science through laboratory equipment vary as compared to their comprehension level when they learn general science through conventional method?
- Does a change in attitudes towards science take place among secondary school students when these students who are used to learning general science through conventional method are made to learn general science through laboratory equipment technique?
- What are the attitudes of teachers towards laboratory equipmenttechnique?
- What is the nature of teacher and student interactions in laboratory equipmentsituations?
- How do sub-groups of students formed on the basis of age, gender and grade differ from each other in terms of achievement and attitudes while learning general science through laboratory equipmenttechnique?
- How do students perceive the overall effectiveness of laboratory equipment after learning general science through laboratory equipmenttechnique?
1.4 Objectives of theStudy
The present study was undertaken with the following objectives:
- To study the effectiveness of laboratory equipment at secondary school level for teaching science as compared to conventional classroom teaching.
- To compare the attitudes and comprehension levels of students learning science through conventional teaching and laboratory use respectively.
- To study the differences in comprehension and attitudes of the students on the basis of age, gender and grade when learning science through conventional teaching and use of equipped laboratory.
- To assess students’ perception of their interactions with their teachers teaching with laboratory equipment.
- To study the attitudes of the teachers towards the use of laboratory equipment while teaching science at secondary schoollevel.
- To assess the effectiveness of modern laboratory equipment’s for teaching science at senior secondary level in terms of comprehension ofstudents.
1.5 Significance of study
The investigator noted that in Jammu and Kashmir, the introduction of laboratory equipment and its use in schools with other parts of the country could not compete. Countries. It was also noted that school authorities and teachers were unwilling to use these tools due to a lack of training, knowledge and sluggishness. In schools, the subject General Natural Sciences (a combination of physics, chemistry and biology) was usually taught as a lecture. Moreover, the use of multimedia to create imagination, to provide scientific concepts, and to provide up-to-date information to enrich the students’ knowledge has hardly been underlined. In fact, the use of modern laboratory equipment to promote science education at school had not reached the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Only a handful of institutions have managed to introduce teaching materials for science education.
With regard to the use of laboratory equipment, it has been found that the media are not very innovative when considered individually or separately. For this reason, the investigator opted for this research study to experiment with laboratory equipment as an innovation in science education at secondary level. The main objective was to examine the possibility of integrating various modern devices available in the field to teach science in the secondary classroom in Nigerian schools. The main assumption for this integration was the belief that a combination of multiple technologies rather than the use of a single laboratory equipment would have a greater impact on classroom science learning in general. Another reason for the integration of laboratory equipment was the need for students and teachers to have knowledge of the 21st century. The most important skill is to know how and when to use the laboratory equipment and select the most appropriate tool for the job. In this study, the examiner assessed the effectiveness of integrating laboratory equipment into learning situations through a well-planned approach in the form of science laboratory equipment for teaching general science at secondary level. In local schools, no experimental studies of this kind have been conducted or reported.
1.6 Operational Definitions Effectiveness
A work place for the conduct of science research
An instrumentality needed for an undertaking or to perform a service.
1.7 Delimitations of the study
The following were the delimitations of the present study:
- The present study being experimental in nature was conducted in some senior secondary schools in Nigeria. These schools were selected since the basic laboratory equipment facilities were already in position and the school authorities had assured to provide full support for the conduct of presentresearch.
- The study was delimited to the teaching of general science at the 7th, 8th and 9th grades. Students studying in 10th grade were excluded in the study since they were busy preparing for their annual Board examinations.
- The present study was delimited to the extent that impact of laboratory equipment was measured after teaching two units of content over a period of three months.
- The measurement of achievement was limited to scores obtained on teacher made tests since no standardised test was available pertaining to the content selected for teaching.
- The present study was delimited to studying the effectiveness of laboratory equipment on students in terms of their achievement, attitudes and perceptions of their interactions with the teachers respectively.
- The present study was delimited to studying the effectiveness of science laboratory equipment on teachers in terms of their attitudes towards science laboratory equipment.
- Organization of the study.
This study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one of the dissertation deals with the general description of the study, the definition of the problem, the research question, the objectives of the research and the importance of the study. Chapter 2 presents all the relevant bibliographical research on waste management and related concepts. Chapter 3 deals with the identification of the most appropriate research methodology for this research, and Chapter 4 provides an analysis of the data of the lessons learned in this field. Finally, Chapter Five summarizes the findings, conclusions and recommendations.