THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN SOME SELECTED JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL
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The purpose of this research study was to investigate Social Studies teachers’ perception on the use of community resources in the teaching and learning of Social Studies in some selected Junior Secondary Schools in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun State. A population at 100 which comprises of 50 teachers and 50 students drawn from five selected Junior Secondary School in Odeda Local Government Area. A well structural questionnaire was administered to gather data from the respondent. The data collected were analysed using percentage method. In conclusion, the findings reveal that the significance of Social Studies teachers perception on the use of community resources in the teaching and learning at Social Studies and some recommendation were given at the end of the study.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The introduction of social studies into the Nigeria school system was based on certain philosophical considerations. One of them is to address social issues and man’s problem of life in their interrelatedness, as they appear in real life situations instead of addressing them in an uninterrelated manner as those learnt through separate disciplined like Geography, Religion, Sociology and Anthropology. Social studies according to Ezegbe (2011), was therefore introduced as an integrated discipline to make education real to life.
Social studies was also introduced into the Nigeria school system to achieve one of the philosopher of Nigeria education as indicated in the National policy on education (2009) which is the development of the individual into a sound and effectives through social studies is possible since the subject is an integrated programme which is taught and learnt.
Social studies looks at all aspects of the life of the child in the society. It is further stated in the National policy on Education (2004) that the essence of education is to achieve the inculcation of National consciousness and national unity. The inculcation of the individual and the Nigerian society.
All these, according to Ezegbe (2013) involves the development of modern democratic values which are taught and learnt in societal studies because of its broad based scope.
The accomplishment of the purpose for which social studies was introduced in schools would depend to a large extent not only on the availability of the right caliber of professionally trained social studies teaching personnel but also of the material resources available in schools for its teaching is the most important. Bram (2007) pointed out the vital role of the teacher in the curriculum process when he notes that.
The curriculum can be great success or a dismal failure depending on the teachers. They are the key persons who alone make the curriculum design achiever whatever it was designed to achieve. No matter how strongly motivation a nation may be in desiring to provide education for its citizens irrespective of the financial resources and the good will. The effectiveness of the system ultimately depends on the quality of the teacher that operate it. It is the teacher who translate societal value and aspiration to practical lessons in the class several educators amongst who are combs.
Fafunwa (2008), Fayemi (2009) have written on the vital role of the teachers as implementer of the curriculum. According to them, whatever abilities are available, whatever content is presented for teaching, which ever kind of environment that school is situated and whatever kind of pupils are given to teach, the important and vital role of the teacher cannot be over emphasized.
Teacher represent a larger proportion of the input of an educational system.
Instructional materials are also educational inputs and they are of vital importance in the successful implementation of any curriculum.Relevant and appropriate textbooks, visual and audio visual materials like globes, charts, slides, maps, tapes, e.t.c are of paramount necessities in the teaching and learning process. Audio visual material supplement and consolidate what is read in textbooks and journal.
An important but often neglected source of instructional material for effective teaching and learning of social educational inputs and they are of vital importance in the successful implementation of any curriculum. Relevant and appropriate textbooks, visual and audio-visual material.
Social studies as broad discipline deals with study of the activities of man in his physical and social environment (i.e how man influence the environmentin which he lives and in turn and examines the environment effect on man) consequently. The community becomes the laboratory for social studies teachers. A careful examination of the Nigerian primary and junior secondary school social studies curriculum would show that they are common in our communities these could be historical, geographical economic, social and cultural issues.
There is no better place than the local community for effective teaching and learning of social bearing of social studies bearing unmind the nature and scope of the subject.
The subject can see at first hand the social process and interactions. Social studiesis about home, school, community functioning, work and government at the local and about the explanation of these things at the national levels.
Members of the students families can often be used as a resources. A parent may be able to describe his or her job when the class is studying community workers or the job market. There may be artifacts from different nations in the homes of the students that would be of interest to the class. Many teachers have found that these add sparkles to the class. Student are to be prepared to think constructively to makejudgement add decision to analyze and criticize what they have learned and to affiliate themselves with these things when they become citizens of the community.
The acceptance of the above assertion will lead one to ask whether secondary school student of social studies are expected to sit down in the classroom and listen to the teacher definition of lake or hill or go out to observe these features and how man’s activities, shapes and re-shape them. Effective utilization of community resources in the teaching and learning of social studies is one of the ways through which the objectives of social studies can be achieved.
According to Meziobi(2012) social studies teacher should move away from reliance on text book and other reading materials and as an alternative to the textbooks disease from attention to participative approaches in social studies instruction which are inductive and problem solving oriented and encourage discovery creatively and reflective inquiry which cannot be inculcated through sheer reading of social studies textbook and other reading materials to be employed inteaching and learning the ultimate goal of any teaching and learning activities is to bring about desirable behavioural changes in the learner. Effective interactive process demands appropriate utilization or commitment of instructional materials and resources.
According to Fadeye(2009), resources could be a stimulus, an object, a person etc which helps the learner in their pursuit of knowledge in social studies.
The community is the neighbourhood beyond just family, community resources are materials both natural or rural communities. A reference person is an expert or acknowledgeable person in an area of specialization who is invited to or is invited for explanations and dissemination of information human resources include the following community leader, farmers, hunters, priests, libarians and postman, police officers, doctors, legislatures, and others. The non human resources are most appropriate for effective social studies instruction in Nigerian given the social relevance of social studies, copied with low level of technology development of the Nigerian society. The growing emphasis on community based on education and the dwindling economic circumstances which has occasional the adequate supply of instructional materials and facilities to our schools, community resources therefore serve as panacea for the inadequate supply of instructional materials.
According to Meziobi(2007), they help to expose the student to the realities of their environment or community and make them have direct experiences which will help to concretize the social studies content that have been tight. It breaks the monotony of the teacher as it adds variety to learning during visit to interest acquaint learners with their social and physical environment as well as strengthen the school community relationship.
In addition, student can serve the community in projects ranging from helping senior citizens to cleaning up local parks, community services provide on bridge between students and the community and can be important resources in building towards the goal citizenship. The students are made to appreciate the fact that the community plays vital roles in their lives and education.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The child is the product of the community, consequently the issue of community resources in the teaching and learning of social studies becomes a means promoting socio-ecological equilibrium and learners understanding of their environment. Researches in community resources like the dependence on high level technology materials such as radio and television for social studies instructional materials effectiveness in Nigeria at this level of our development is not only unrealistic, it will impede the proper institutionalization of social studies education.
The scarcity and at time non availability of the imported high level technology materials such as cine projector, slide projector, accreted projector for impaled effective teaching in school.
Furthermore, the inability of most social studies teachers to effectively operate the instructional materials poses problems.
Unfortunately where some of the materials are available the schools lack electricity to energize them. These problems have being manifested in the manner in which student find difficulty in concertizing abstract concepts taught.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To give the study a direction, the following research question are raised.
1. Are social studies teachers in school aware of available community resources for the teaching of social studies?
2. Are social studies teacher aware of all the value of community resources in the teaching of social studies?
3. Is there any differences between profession al social studies teacher in their perception of the value of community resource?
4. Do social studies teacher differ significantly in their perception of the constraints in the use of community resources?
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is of significant to the following group of people which include.
It is of significant to all social studies.
Teacher to cultivate the habit of using community resources in teaching social studies. It is a significant to all school management to encourage the use of community resources in the planning of school curriculum.
The research work will also be of great significant to further researchers and educationalist who would like to embark on research topic like this.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study focuses on social studies teacher perception of the constraints to the use of community resources for teaching and it is limited to social studies teacher in in some selected junior secondary schools.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. Community: people who live in a particular area, country e.t.c
2. Artifacts: An object made by a human being typically one of cultural or historical interest.
3. Resources: A stock or supply of money materials, staff and other assets that an be drawn by a person or organization in order to function effectively.
4. Society: People in general, living together in communities.
5. Economic: Connected with the trade industry and development of wealth of a country.
6. Facilities: Services, equipment e.t.c that are provided for a particular purpose.
Teacher: a person whose job is teaching especially in a school.