STUDENT’S OVERPOPULATION AND TEACHERS’ JOB PERFORMANCE
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This study explored the implications of overpopulation on teacher’s job performance in Odeda Local Government Area Secondary Schools, Ogun State in areas in teaching, marking of students assignments and use of teaching – aids. Seven schools were randomly selected, as sample, out of the 1 secondary schools in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State. Ten teachers were then randomly selected from each of the sample schools. Five research questions were raised for the purpose of this study a researcher designed instrument titled, ‘Students’ Overpopulation and Teachers’ Job Performance Questionnaire’ (SOTJPQ) was used to collect data from the respondents. The data obtained were analysed using frequency counts and percentage. The findings showed that students’ overpopulation affected teachers’ marking of students’ assignments, use of teaching aids and classroom teaching negatively by not being able to give each student individual attention to discover their learning weaknesses and help improve on them. Teacher-centered method of teaching was mostly used and this reduced students’ participation. Group work was mostly encouraged and this leads to copying, cheating and exam malpractice. Also, assignments given in the classroom were not marked immediately and take-home assignments were not marked on time. Teaching aids could not go round and it was difficult for each individual to carryout practical work because of the class population. Based on the findings, it was recommended that more classrooms should be built by the government, so as to accommodate the students. More teachers should be employed and maximum of 40 students to a teacher should be implemented. Other stakeholders in education should be encouraged to donate facilities to the schools. Companies should be encouraged to provide infrastructure as part of their corporate social responsibility.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Since western education became firmly rooted in Nigeria. It has faced myriads of problems (Ijaiya 1999). Most of Nigerian governments have been battling with these problems during colonial or post independence era. It has resulted in the setting up of various commissions (e.g. The Asuby commission of 1960; the 1969 curriculum conference, Education Reform of Committee of 2006 etc) to examine Nigeria’s educational problem and make recommendations.
Among the problems facing the Nigeria educational system is large and poorly resourced classes. The problems of shortage of teachers and classrooms are intricately interwoven and when both combine with large pupil enrolment, the consequence is over-crowded classrooms (Ijaiya 1999). This has become a reality that educators must see it as a challenge and must face it squarely. The social-demand for formal education in Nigeria resulted into an upsurge increase in school enrolment with a dramatic increase in the class size; thereby resulting into high teacher pupil ratio. Class size is a big factor in determining the attainment of educational goals and objectives. The recommended students population in a single classroom should not exceed 40 to a teacher.
Teaching and learning as well as classroom management becomes ineffective because teachers were predisposing to more stress in handling the students.
The introduction of UBE in the country depicts the fact that teachers are being saddled with greater responsibility because many schools have become congested. Overpopulated classrooms are considered to be unconductive for both teachers and students when it comes to the issue of continuous assessment marking and the ability to give individualized attention to students needing extra help. In teaching large classes, there is possibility of students copying and cheating; students negative attitude to learning new things; discipline problems; students using the mother tongue when asked to work in pairs or group; noise making; lack of opportunity for developing individual’s communicative skills and problems of boredom in teaching and testing as well as teacher domination. All these affect the job performance of teachers.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In Nigeria, using selected secondary schools from Odeda Local Government Area as a case study, schools are highly populated and the national policy of education gave an ideal ratio of teacher to pupil in a secondary school as 1:40 maximum. This study was interested in identifying the major problems caused by overpopulated classes in Nigeria growing with a view to making suggestions that could help to alleviate the problems.
Knowing that the classroom is the heart of any educational system, no curriculum planning is complete without implementation and evaluation, both of which are mainly carried out in the classroom (Ijaiya1999). As rightly observed by Cohen and Manion (1983 p.221) a careful attention to seating arrangement contributes as effectively as any other aspect of classroom management and control to overall success with a class subsequently. The seating arrangement can affect the teacher’s effectiveness and efficiency. Ideally, in a secondary school, seats should be arranged in rows with a reasonable amount of space between them to aid the teacher to teach effectively, as well as allow for individual and group work. To this end, the ratio of teacher to students should not exceed 1:40. But what one funds in many of these classes is between ratio 1:50 and 1:100 in certain cases.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This project is specifically designed to look into some secondary schools where classrooms are overcrowded and how it affects teachers job performances in the class. Job performance includes marking of assignment and continuous assessment, giving individualized attention to students needing extra help; control of students copying or cheating; carrying out practical work, controlling students negative attitude of learning new things; discipline; control of students using the mother tongue when asked to work in pairs or group; control of noise making; developing individuals communicative skills etc
This project looks into teachers job performance in terms of teaching giving assignment and marking.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings from this research can help the government in resource allocation which includes human, financial material and physical resources. School administrators will know the resources needed and how to administer the resources given. Teachers have direct relationship with the students and know when overpopulation affects how they impact knowledge. PTA and the community which are agents of school community relations can help fund building projects, outsource part time teachers etc. All these will help in implementing the stated policies as regards the recommended teacher. Pupil ratio, in order to achieve educational goals and objectives.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study will cover selected schools in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun State.
This study covers the concept of over populated classroom, effects of overpopulated classrooms, teaching, classroom management and teachers’ job performance.
The outcome of this research will be useful for the Ministry of education, secondary schools, government educational planners and other agents interested in education.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Some terms specific to this study have been defined below:
Student overpopulation: any classroom above the recommended teacher to students’ ratio of 1:40 is considered overpopulation.
Teaching: the process of giving lessons in a classroom. It is also the process of passing on knowledge, skills, and attitudes
Job performance: The way a teacher carries out his/her responsibilities which include teaching, giving assignment and marking.