STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION ON CULTISM AT FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
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The purpose of this study is to take a deep look into the student’s perception on cultism at Federal College of Education, Osiele, Abeokuta. Thereby, taking a deep look at the meaning of cultism, the perception of student’s of cultism, reason of cultism and origin or cultism etc. this comprises introduction to the research work, statement of the problem, purpose of study, significance of the study, the limitation of the study, definition of terms and background of the writers significance of study. This research work is of the literature reviews and the basic concept of terms, and most of the work done earlier by different scholars on the meaning of cultism and reason for cultism and perceptions of students on cultism. This chapter of the research work contains analysis of student’s perception on cultism at Federal College of Education, Osiele, Abeokuta. This chapter of the research work contains the data analysis of the field work. Finally, this chapter it is made up of the summary, conclusion and recommendation of the research work.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to America sociologist, Howard, R. (1993) “A cult is a group that uses methods that deprive individuals of their ability to make a frees choice. They uses deceitful recruitment techniques, they deceptively and destructively use the devote energies and they capture the devote’s minds to choice the goods of the group leaders to the actual or possible detriment of members, their families or the community. Cult can include groups and organisation that are not typically viewed as cults”.
According to Oluwasina (2000), the word .cult pejoratively refers to a group whose beliefs or practices are considered abnormal or bizarre. The word originally devoted a system of ritual practices. The narrower, derogatory sence of the word is a product of the 20th century, especially since 1980s and is considered subjective. It is also a result of the anti-cult movement which uses the word in reference of the groups seen as authoritarian, exploitative and that are believed to uses of dangerous ritual or mind control. The word implies a group which is a minority in a given society.
According to FESOBI (1996) “a cult is a group movement exhibiting a great or excessive devotion or dedication to some person, idea or thing and employing unethically manipulative techniques of persuasion and control. E.g. isolation from former friends and family, dehilitation, sue of special methods of heighten suggestibility and subservience, powerful group pressures, information management, pension of individuality or critical judgment, promotion of total dependency on the group and fear (consequence of leaving it etc) designed to advance the goals of the group leaders to the actual or possible detriment of members, their families or the community.
There are various social issue dominate our contemporary society, societal issue like unemployment, robbery, hanger and domestic family problems, cultism and even cultural problems which is encountered in Nigeria’s higher educational institutions.
According to Olumuyiwa & Vitaonu (2007) “a cult is a group that uses methods that deprive individuals of their ability to make free choices. They use deceitful recruitment techniques, they deceptively and destructively use the devote’s minds to advance the goals of the group leaders to the actual or possible detriment of members, their families or the community… cults include groups and organisation that are not typically viewed as cult’.
According to Pakistan journal of social science vol 4 (2007) “a cult is a group or movement exhibiting great or excessive devotion or dedication to some person ideas or thing and employing unethically manipulative techniques of persuasion and control e.g. isolation from former friends and family, dehilitation, sue of special methods of heighten suggestibility and subservience, powerful group pressures, information management, pension of individuality or critical judgment, promotion of total dependency on the group and fear (consequence of leaving it etc) designed to advance the goals of the group leaders to the actual or possible detriment of members, their families or the community. Cults organisations are freely use unethical and deceptive techniques to recruit and control members.
According to Adufe (2001) cult groups do not depend solely upon theological and spiritual persuasion to attract coverts. Destructive cult group also utilize sophisticated techniques of actual and literal mind control to deliberatively manipulative prospect and new concerts.
According to the “Advanced learners’ dictionary of current English”, cult is a system of religious believe and worship devotion to a person or practices. Some dictionary sees secret cult as to be kept from the knowledge or view of others’. It is in this category that the present reformed Ogoni fraternity falls. A cult can be said to emanate from great and excessive administration or belief in a person or ideas. This could be manifested in rituals, praise song, chants and worship. It is an unquestionable practice that may be difficult to dislodge even with superior argument.
According to Wale Adufe (2001) secret cult could therefore be defined as a set of practices, belief system or idea whose essence is know only to the inner members and excessively admired and defended even to the point of laying down one’s life. It is this doggedness and strong convictism demonstrated by members that reinforce the importance of and awefer the group especially among non-members. Renowned secret cults in Ngieria include, the reformed Ogboni fraternity, Oboni society (in Ikwere land), Ekpo society (in Cross river state), the Odumu masquerade (in Okirika land), the Akujane society (in Igala land), the Ejalukwu society (in Ibona land), the Eyo society in Lagos), to mention but a few.
These societies have their belief system and their main ingredients tightly protected. For instance, the Akujane masquerade is a powerful phenomenon that no person dares to see its heads as any intruder is punished with disgrace and even death. But one’s positive thing about the societies is that they do not harm unless provoked and they could serve as an instrument for cleansing the society of any cultural debris and become dominant in the midst of social disorder. Some even serve as socialization groups that initiative men and women into adulthood as in poro and mende societies in Sierra Leone and Oviaeseas in Ogori land. It is noteworthy that the group was not to harm, main, kill and destroy as their cohesiveness and absolute allegiance to rules made it become an elite club only for the cleanest brightest and the politically conscious.
The anti-anglo defence pact with Britain not and the “all must go” students protest of 1978 was ably handled by members of the pirates confraternity.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is a common knowledge that all forms of student’s misbehaviour such as jurente delinquencies, rudeness to or lack of respect for lecturers and constituted authorities as well as other forms of anti-social behaviour have for a long time be devoted the Nigerian educational system particularly institutions of higher learning. However, the literature reviewed so far seems to show that higher educational institutions, that is, Federal College of Education in Nigeria are under threat of cultism. The problem in this study therefore is how the academic staff did; non-academic staff and student perceive coercion persuasion. Public awareness campaign, public renunciation and school disciplinary measure as being effective in the management of cultism in Nigerian’s higher educational institutions.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purposes of this study are:
1) To examine students’ perception on cultism at Federal College of Education, Abeokuta.
2) To draw public attention to the preponderance of cult activities in Nigerian high institutions.
3) To identify the causes of cultism in Nigerian higher institutions.
4) To explore various techniques of recruiting cults in Nigerian higher institutions.
5) To proffer possible solutions to the menace of cultism in Nigerian higher institutions.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1) What are the negative effects of cultism?
2) Why do cultism member show power on female student in campus?
3) Why did students join cultism?
4) Why do cultism member have upper hand in the post of S.U.G. in the higher institution of learning?
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to students’ perception on cultism at Federal College of Education, Osiele, Abeokuta. An effort will be made to access the meaning of cultism, origin of cultism campus and effect of cultism, why people join cultism and solution will be made to the possible question.
1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
When I was writing these project there are may challenges facing me during the time. Inadequate of fund to get information on the internet. The time topic was given to me, there is no time for me to start the project at all because of lack of co-operation from any of my friends and family.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Cult:- A small group of people who have extreme religious belief and who are not part of any established region. Their son ran away from home and joined a cult.
Perception:- This is the way you notice thing especially with the sense our perception of reality colour.
Secret:- Known about by only a few people kept hidden from others, some thing that is known about by only a few people and not told to others.
Gang: According to Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary says, an organized group of criminals, a group of young people who spent a lot of time together and often cause trouble or fight against others groups violence involving or caused by physical force that is intended to lert or kill is violence crime. Student were involves in violence clashes with its police to die or meet with violence death e.g. to be murdered.
Campus: The building of a university or college and the land around them.
Gender: The fact of being male or female issue of clashes race and gender. Gender difference relation or roles.
Institution: Large important organisation that has a particular purpose e.g. an university or bank. Educational a custom or system that has existed for a long time among a particular group of people.
Jailed: A person he/she spent a year in jail.
Rape: To force, to have sex with you when you do not want to by threatening them.
Arrest: if the police arrest, the person is taken to a police station and kept there because the police believe they may be guilty of a crime.