THE INFLUENCE OF CHILD LABOUR ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
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The study investigated the influence of child labour on academic achievement of junior secondary school students in Odeda Local Government Area at Ogun State. The sample comprised at 100 students randomly selected from two junior secondary schools in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State. A questionnaire was constructed for each respondent by the researcher and administered to elicit responses from the respondents. The hypothesis were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significant using chi-square statistical method to determine the significant influence of child labour on academic achievement of students on variables. From the analysis of the data collected the findings at the study shows that: there is significant influence of child labour on academic achievement of students. There is significant relationship between family variables and child labour. There is significant relationship between parental dare and students engagement in child labour. Based on the findings, it was concluded that, there should be eradication of child labour in our society
1.1 Background of the Study
The traumatic experience of child labour in Nigeria was dated back to around 1882. Some feel that the crux of the problem is in the fact that children are allowed to engage in economic activity. They argue that childhood should be reserved primarily for study and play, with work consisting of but light chores in the home. They maintain that even when children are not mistreated, their participation in the workforce weakens adult wages and employment and is thus a factor in generating the very poverty that force them to work. Virtually all working children are considered by definition to be at risk and therefore, the elimination of child work/labour is the only way to reduce endangerment. To their mind, the ultimate goal of action should be the elimination of all forms of child labour.
A different position is taken by those who point out that work under appropriate protection and supervision, is an essential vehicle of juvenile socialization, training and self-esteem. They hold that the economic participation of children is acceptable as long as it is consistent with healthy development and that the real problem is the special vulnerability of children when they enter the labour market. Although they support the elimination of child participation in hazardous work, they feel that youngsters wishing to work should have the right to do so and that the scarcity of employment opportunities suitable for minors is as much a problem as is the existence of exploitative working conditions. Proponents of this view claim that prohibiting child labour without first raising family real income from other sources will invite tragedy for the poor, creating even more destitute children. To them, the central issue is how to protect the safety and development of children who work.
These positions are in part expressions of ideological differences, but they also reflect the complexity of the problem (child labour) characterized by untidy incongruities and contradictions. Successfully dealing with the problem of child work entails making the effort necessary to understand its intricacies. Effective programming depends on being able to comprehend the problem from a variety of perspectives, including some that appear contradictory. Without such comprehension, there is a risk of launching simplistic actions that are not only ineffective, but perhaps even detrimental to the welfare of the children involved. Unfortunately, this very situation has often occurred.
Most governments tends to define the problem of working children in piecemeal fashion. Approaching it as a series of separate issues rather that as a whole. In some instances, for example, it is addressed primarily as an issue of labour policy, ignoring its fundamental connections to economic, education, health, law enforcement, social assistance and family policies. In other cases, the problem is treated as a social work issue, seeking merely to ameliorate symptoms without confronting their roots in major political, social and economic policy. Purely sectoral definitions of the problem lead to the absurdity in which police officials regard working children as a law enforcement problem, welfare agencies treat them as a social assistance problem, child rights advocates address them as a right problem educators view them as a school drop-out problem and so forth, while virtually nobody appreciates the problem as it is experienced by the impoverished youngsters who are at the centre of it all.
Advocates, policymakers, planners and administrators should better comprehend what it means to be a disadvantaged young worker trying to do what is necessary for self and family within the constraints of extremely limited options. Achieving a little of that understanding could be a productive departure point for perceiving the problem of protecting working children more profoundly, comprehensively and humanely.
The effects of engaging in work should be assessed in terms not only of children’s immediate safety and welfare, but also in terms of their long-term physical, intellectual, emotional, social, and moral development. Both negative and positive impacts need to be taken into consideration.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Child labour is experienced among all races across the globe and this have been a challenge to every successful government especially in Nigeria. A lot of debates and seminal have been held to discuss this issue but the problem is far from being solved. Rather it seems to be going worse everyday. And this prompted the researchers to delve into the matter to re-awaken parents to take up their responsibilities accurately.
The researchers is basically to investigate on the influence of child labour on the academic achievement of senior secondary school student in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The study examines the influence of child labour on Academics achievements of junior secondary school students in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun-State.
The researchers is interested in the following:
· To examine how child labour influences Academic achievement
· To find out why children leave school and start working early
· The impacts of school on the influences of child labour on academics achievement.
· What are the major determinants of child labour?
1.4 Research Question
In order to have a reliable premise upon which to justify the topic and serve as a guide, the researcher will attempt to answer the following questions
(a) Is there any significant relationship between child labour and Academic Achievement of students in Junior Secondary School in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State?
(b) Does parental care influences child labour and Academic Achievement of students in Junior Secondary Schools in Odeda L.G.A of Ogun-State
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses are formulated to give direction to the study
(1) There is no significant influence of child labour on academic achievement of students
(2) There is no significant relationship between family variables and child labour.
(3) There is no significant relationship between parental care and students engagement in child labours
1.6 Significance of the Study
The research work specifically design to examine the influences of child labour on the academics achievement of students in Junior secondary schools in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun state.
– It Will call the attention of the parents to their responsibilities towards their children
– It will enable the government to know the influences of child labour on academic achievement of students
– It will enable government to know the contribution of people in Odeda towards their child development programme to the substance of the academic achievement
– The research will enable the students to know how child labour affects their academic achievements
– The research will serve as reference to students writing synonymous topic
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
The research only examines how child labour among other variables influences the academic achievements of Junior Secondary School Students in Odeda Local Government Area of ogun state specifically.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Child: According to United Nations Convention on the rights of the child defines a child as a human being below the age of 18years unless under the law applicable to the child
Labour: According to Melchiorrc, A (2004), defined labour as physical or mental exertion, especially when difficult or exhausting work
Child Labour: According to (UNICEF) Child Labour can be defined as work that exceeds a minimum number of hours depending on the age of a child and on the type of work
Academic: This Refers to the general term used for a group of people or an organization that promote arts, literature, science or some other field of knowledge.
Achievement: This refers to the accomplishment of whatever goal you’ve set for yourself, not necessarily earning a lot of money.