THE EFFECT OF TEACHING AIDS ON PUPILS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BASIC SCIENCE IN PRIMARY SCHOOL
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This study was carried out to investigate the effect of teaching aids on pupils academic performance in Basic Science in primary school in Yewa South Local Government Area, of Ogun State. The survey designed was used for the study, fifty (50) respondent randomly selected through simple random sampling technique was used to get relevant data needed for the study. Result from the study shows that Basic Science is a compulsory subject and the use of relevant teaching aids cannot be over emphasized. The teaching aids could be in the form of visual, audio, audio-visual; it reveals the teacher confound interest in the use of teaching aids to teach Basic Science, it will also aid better performance of pupils in Basic Science. The study recommended, organizing relevant work shop and seminars for science teachers to keep them abreast of new technology related to teaching of Basic Science, it also encourages supervision of teachers on the use of relevant teaching aids while teaching.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Basic science is a branch of science that involves the fundamental system of acquiring knowledge using observations and experiments to describe and explain natural phenomena. Basic science is referred to as a type of science where emphasis is places on the unity of science and it is the only way of teaching science in such a way as the present scientific ideas as unified whole (Wikipedia, 2014).
Science was included in the primary school curriculum in (1999) as one of the three subjects in the area of social, environmental and scientific education (SESE).Although some focus on elementary science had been included in the (1971) curriculum for pupils. The (1999) curriculum is significantly more comprehensive than the previous one in a number of respects.
The study of Basic science and technology has been applied as very relevant to the survival and progress of the human race. This chain strongly supported by the place of science and technology in the education pre-process. The educational system of all nation include element of science and technology at all levels. As bodies of knowledge, there are acceptable methods through which skills in them can be acquired. The Nigeria government, through it policy on education, very wellsupports the teaching and learning of science and technology in the primary school level of education.
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
“SCIENCE” and “TECHNOLOGY” are related to each other after the research in science, technology came into existence by Akinola (2009). When we are talking about science it goes a long way with Technology, because they are vice-visa. “Science” would be incomplete without “Technology” on this note we can say that “Science” is the head while “Technology” is the body.
CONCEPT OF SCIENCE
Man is very inquisitive about the origin of things he finds around him. Science comes from the Latin word “Scientia” which simply means “knowledge”. The word science has been viewed by many scholars as they perceive it.
Science is the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment. Science forms the avenue through which man interactsand explains phenomenon or activities around the universe.
CONCEPT OF TECHNOLOGY
Technology is derived from the Greek word “Tecture” which simply means ‘art’ or ‘craft’. Technologyis the practical application of scientific knowledge making use of the results of different scientific researches in producing goods and services. Technology developed as a result of man’s need to solve certain practical problems in science. It is all about the application and production of tools in solving societal problems, so that life can be meaningful and comfortable for man.
According to my own vista and perspective to backup my studies, the following table shared more light on Science and Technology.
Science make research for experimentations
Technology reveals and rebrand it
Science think to creates
Technology re-think to re-creates
Technology make conclusion
Science build and mould
Technology re-build and remould
Science use logic to lead
Technology strategize to give follow-up
Science participates and make development
Technology take controlsto manoeuvre and showcase
Lastly science dictates to observe and practicalise
Technology discover to scrutinize and utilize for functioning and usefulness
However, the optimum aims and objectives of educational set-up would not be achieved, without the use of teaching aids in teaching and learning of Basic science and technology because the primary level of education is the foundation.
There is a positive relationship between academic performance of the pupils with availability and use of instructional materials or audio-visual aids in schools. Jamison et al (1981) as cited in Dahar&Faize (2011) state that physical facilities and availability or teaching aids along with the level of teacher’s education, all collectively develops the quality of classroom and quality learning that predicts of forecasts the pupils achievements. Likewise Mwamwauda (1987) as cited in Dahar&Faize (2011) states that school facilities that include textbooks are very influential elements that contributes to the pupils achievement.
Before modern education was incorporated, Pupilswas passive listeners and teacher was astronomous body who knows what, when and how of education. But in recent years the superiority in shifted towards pupils. Use of teaching aids is preferred as they are considered as 85% of whole teaching and learning (jadal,2011). They keep the individual learner focused on what is being taught by the teacher in the classroom session.
Teaching aids make a lesson or a lecture more interesting and a memorable experience not only for pupils but for teachers as well. They play a vibrant role in focusing the attention of individual pupils towards the teacher or the topic. Human beings five senses organ are the doorway for effective learning, especially seeing, hearing and touching brings maximum knowledge for the individual.
Jerome Bruner a psychologist at New York University advocates, research has shown that people remember:
10% of what they hear, 20% of what they read and80% of what they see and do: (Lester, 2012).
It is also very vital to leave sufficient and adequate human resources in care of teacher quality for the teaching of all subjects in the school curriculum, without the teacher as implementing factors the goals of education can never be achieved.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Basic science is a compulsory subject offered in the primary and secondary schools, this therefore requires the use of teaching aids for effective teaching to study what therefore, investigates:
i. The meaning of teaching aids
ii. The various forms
iii. Effect of teaching aids in teaching of Basic science
iv. Measures to be taken to improve the use of teaching aids
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are availabilities for teaching aids in Basic science?
2. What are the effects of teaching aids in basic science on pupils academic performance?
3. How adequate are the available teaching aid for the teaching and learning of Basic Science?
4. To what extent do teacher utilize the teaching aids for teaching and learning of Basic science
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This study will investigate:
i. The concept of teaching aids
ii. Types of teaching aids
iii. Effect of teaching aids on the teaching of Basic science
iv. The way forward
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study will be carried out in Yewa South Local Government area of Ogun State.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be of importance to the following: Government, Principals/Head-Teachers, Teachers, Pupils and Parents.
TheGovernment:This study will enhance the government to know the usefulness of teaching aids teaching and learning of Basic science. It will also make meaningful ideal in making of syllabus for educational set-up; so as to organize seminars/workshops programmeson the usage of teaching aids. The government will be aware of monitoring unit of the local government schools to conduct regular inspection of teachers, pupils, school facilities and infrastructures. Meanwhile action should not be delayed in effecting to repairs to prevent deteriorate of facilities.The school community makes land available, the government builds school on its own; provide furniture, refurbish old classrooms, provide teaching learning equipment. All these provision are made in order to achieve the goal of educational set p, which is incomplete without the effective use of teaching aids.
The Principal/Head Teachers: The research will give more knowledge and awareness to the Principal/Head Teachers in educational system on how to strategically make provisions of needed and necessary teaching aids in order to promote the study of Basic Science in Primary and Junior Secondary school levels. This study will also immensely assist the Principal/Head Teachers either to change or switch in the functions and duties. The Principal/Head Teachers as the Chief Executive of the school has multi-various tasks to accomplish for successful administration of the school system. Several authors describes the functions and roles of the school principals/head teachers. According to Ezeocha (1992) sees the function of the Principal/Head teacher as the:
Supervision of instruction and curriculum development aid.
According to Rollings et al (1959) posits that Principal/Head Teacher is:
· standard setter
· one who leads in the development of an aspiration and expectation on the part of both teachers and pupils to do good work.
· He assist the teachers with their problems of improving methods
· He can help teachers improve their testing techniques and develop their ability to analyze and interpret data.
· The Principal/Head teacher as an administrator need to possess certain administrative skills to effectively perform his duty. However, he is the intractional leader, the personnel manager for both the pupils and staff personnel, also is the finance and physical facility manager.
The principal/Head Teacher is expected to maintain a good relationship with the immediate community and also ensure a continuous contact with the ministry of education in the area in which the school is situated.
Teachers: This study would basically and broadly aid the teachers on how to prudently facilitate, utilize the teaching aids in teaching of Basic science. Teachers will be aware onhow to carry out their roles in teaching and learning process, so as to play their vital role effectively in the lives of the pupils in their classrooms; because teachers are best known for the role of education to the pupils/students that are placed in their care. Beyond that teachers serves many other roles in the classroom, teachers set the tone of their classrooms build warm environment, monitor and nurture pupils become rolemodels,and listen and look signs of trouble.
Among these roles are:
· Teaching Knowledge: The most common role a teacher plays in the classroom is to teach knowledge to child, teachers are given a curriculum they must follow that meets state guidelines.
· Creating classroom environment: Teachers also plays important role in the classroom when it comes to the environment. Pupils often mimic teacher’s action. If the teacher prepares a warm, happy environment, pupils are more likely to be happy.
· Role Modeling:the teachers do not think of themselves as role models. However, inadvertently the pupils spend a great deal of time with their teacher and therefore the teacher becomes a role model to them. This can be a positive or negative effect depending on the teachers. Teachers are there not only to teach but to also love, care for them, in doing this he becomes a role model for the children.
· Monitoring: Monitoring is a natural role taking on by the teachers, whether it is intentional or not. This can also have positive or negative effect on children. Monitoring by the teacher is a way he encourages and guide the pupils to strive and be the best academically. It also includes encouraging pupils to enjoy learning.
· Signs of trouble: Another role played by teachers are taught to look for signs of trouble in the pupils. When pupils behavior is change or physical signs of abuse is noticed, teachers are required to look into the problem. Teachers must follow faculty procedure when it comes to following up in all signs of trouble.
Pupils: The study will be beneficial to the pupils/students to build the potential in learning of Basic science, it will also guide them in acquiring, discovering the influence and utility of teaching aids to develop interest on the usage of it.
The pupils are learners who are expected to take instructions from the Head Teacher of the school as well as their class teachers. Apart from the academic assignments given to them in their classes, they are also expected to participate in the co-curricular activities of the school. Therefore, the best legacy for a child is education, because education is a human right that should be accorded to all human beings solely by reason of being human.
Parents: this study will be of benefit and important to the parents, However, it would allow them to know the usefulness of teaching aids in the process of teaching and learning of Basic science, they will be able to make mention of this in the meeting of “PARENTS AND TEACHERS ASSOCIATION” (PTAs). The participation of parents in the lives of their children towards education plays some vital roles to the pupils greater achievement academically, morally, physically and socially. Experience has shown that the community has always been partners in progress; that is, the parents with government in financial, materials and moral provisions for the Nigeria primary schools, the roles of the “PARENTS AND TEACHERS ASSOCIATION (PTAs) has been quite impressive.
In most cases, the (PTAs) have provided financial support and provision of blocks of classrooms school buses, assembly halls, and construction of access roads. It will aid the command, the responsibility of working as a team for achieving the earlier stated aims and objectives.
The ultimate and major assignment for the parents is to train their children that the entire community will be proud of.
1.7 DE-LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In the course of writing and gathering information that are relevant to this project. The researcher encountered some challenges which are demerit to this work and that has caused many difficulties to accurately manage the main period and time stipulated for this work.
During the course of distribution of questionnaire, the researcher on his field for gathering information; some of the respondents are reluctant to fill the items. Some are making mistake in ticking two answers for a statement, Some of them do failed to fill the item all through, Some of the respondent do not even bother to return the questionnaire which the researcher has given to them. Therefore, the researcher was able to retrieve exactly numbers of the questionnaire needed on this study.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
· Basic: definition from oxford Learners Dictionary define it as: forming the part of something that is most necessary and from which other things develop. Or before anything extra is added.in other words: Basic is a simple high level computer programming language that user familiar English words, designed for beginners and formerly used widely.
· Science: (From Latin word mean “scientia” and it is simple means knowledge). Science is a systematic enterprise that build and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanation and petitioner about universe. The Oxford learners dictionary described it as knowledge about structure and behavior of the natural and physical world, based on facts that you can prove for example by experiments, another definition says that is a system for organizing the knowledge about a particular subject, especially one concerned with assepts of human behaviour or society.
· Pupils: person usually young, who is learning under the close supervision of a teacher at school, a private tutor, or like; students. In other words is a person who is being taught especially a child in a school.
· Academic: according to Oxford Advanced Learner dictionary; defined: connected with education, especially studying in schools and universities. In other words is the combination of students and scholars engaged in higher education or research.
· Performance: definition from oxford Advanced learner dictionary defined it, as how well or badly you do something or how well or badly something works; or the act or process of performing a task, an action etc. in other words is an act that involves a lot of effort or trouble, sometimes when it is necessary. It also be called ‘Achievement”which means: things are done successfully or fact achieving something.
· Teachingaids: is used in organs classroom need to reflect current information and research and being designed foracademic content standards. It is also known as “Instructional Materials”.
· Learning: is the process of learning or acquiring something. In other words; knowledge that you get from reading and studying
· Teaching: is the ideas of a particular person or group, especially about politics, religion, or society etc. that are taught to other people.
· Curriculum: is the subject that are included in a course of study or taught in a school, college etc.