THE EFFECT OF SINGLE PARENTHOOD ON LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT AMONG STUDENTS IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
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This study examined the effect of single parenthood on learning achievement among students in junior secondary schools. In carrying out the research, five research questions were asked to give directions. The participants for the study consisted of one hundred students randomly selected from two junior secondary schools in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State. the instrument used in data collection was questionnaire developed by the researcher. The data collected were statistically analysed using simple percentage. The result of the analysis revealed that parents’ socio-economic status, failure to provide learning materials and financial problems and economic hardship are factors that influences the learning achievement of student’s in school. Based on these findings, certain recommendations are made towards improving student’s learning achievement. Among these recommendations are parents devoting more time and condusive environment for their children, provision of needed facilities, equipment and infrastructure by the government.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Single parenthood is a very important social issue that can have significant effect on a child’s learning achievement and academic success. Children who are raised in a single family home are at risk of not reaching their full potential. Students within our educational system encounter many challenges in their family lives that they bring with them into the classroom.
The family structure, ideally provides a sense of security and stability which is necessary for the children. When there is a breakdown in the family structure, it sometimes have a tremendous effect on the child and his ability to function ordinarily or learn. In most situations, the child no longer has two parents to depend on. With limited finances, time and availability parents are likely to provide the necessary and adequate support to the child for them to provide to the best of their abilities.
Throughout the years, single parent families have been no increase. Therefore, there is a tremendous growth in the number of children of single parents. Udansky, (2008) identifies single parenting as a major social problem on the rise.
Yongm and Yuanzhange (2008), makes clear that in some cases children who experience separation or divorce do not always perform well or have low learning achievement. Downey (1994), says that students from two parent families are consequently outperforming their peers who happen to live in single parent home
There are several factors that affect the learning achievement of students in junior secondary schools, these factors may be the internal state of the student which include intelligence, motivation, state of health, etc. or the students environment which include availability of suitable learning environment, adequate learning infrastructures like textbooks and well equipped library.
The home is an essential element in the emotional development of a child. The type of home setting and situation always have an effect on the learning achievement of the children in the school.
For example, aggressiveness and delinquency is usually associated with children that comes from a single parenthood family structure are usually maladjusted than children from a two parent or stable home. It has been shown from research that most children from single parent family are not always emotionally stable like children who comes from a complete or two family structure.
In order to properly understand why some students `behave the way they do, the teacher needs to engage in house visitation to individual student’s houses which will enable the teacher to understand how to deal with children from single parent household.
Single parenthood can eventually lead to drop-out of school of children. This could be as a result of matrimonial responsible, on either the part of the father or mother and when such parents separate, it affects the psychological appearance of such child or children. There is less parental care and this makes the child or children to be morally degraded which eventually leads to moral decadence exhibited by child in the school.
In view of the above, there is need for the researcher to critically examine the effect of single parenthood on leaning achievement among students in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Over the y ears, the major interest of parents, teachers, counsellors, psychologists, researchers and school administrators have been to find out the factors that influence the learning achievement of students. This was as a result of the continuous fall in the standard of education in the country.
There are several factors that affect the leaning achievement of students in junior secondary schools, these factors may be the internal state of student which include intelligence, motivation, state of health etc of the student environment, adequate learning infrastructure like textbooks and well equipped library.
There are many students within the school system that comes from single parent family and due to many issues that emanates from single family model, some students are unable to reach their potentials. As the single parent model rapidly becomes the norm; it is necessary for the researches to find away to address these issues so as to provide students and parents with solution to help them achieve to their highest ability.
It is also being suggested that single parenthood could be responsible for students learning achievement.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the research is to establish the following:
i To determine the level to which single parenthood effects the learning achievement of students.
ii. To determine the implications of single parenthood on learning achievement of male and female student in junior secondary schools.
iii. To provide solutions to problems of single parenthood in order to have a positive effect on the learning achievement of students
iv. To suggest ways by which parents, guardians and teachers can influence positively students from single parenthood to achieve high learning abilities and academic achievement.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. Is there any relationship between learning achievement of students and single parenthood?
ii. How does single parenthood results into moral decadence?
iii To what extent has solutions been preferred to problems of single parenthood?.
iv. Is there any relationship between the success of a child and the type of family such child comes form?
v. To what extent has teachers, guardians, government ant counsellors strove to help children from single parenthood family towards achieving effective learning?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will enable us to understand that a child’s future is determined by the family which comprises of the father and mother’s love and affection and also how the parent carries out their responsibilities on the child.
It will also show the importance of parent’s care and attention on the leaning achievement of the child. It will also enable us to know the relevance of home in the child life.
Secondary, since education plays a vital role in the development of a nation and only the educated individual are referred to as the resources for impressive national development, then any problem of learning achievement in the society is a national problem.
Thirdly, it will enable the teacher to know the problem and implication of single parenthood on learning achievement so as to be able to take proper care of child or children that falls into these groups of family structure.
Fourthly, this study will show how to maintain marriage in order to eradicate problems of single parenthood in the society.
Lastly, the result of this research work will inspire the appropriate authorities which include teachers, parents guardians, counsellors and government on how to improve the learning abilities of the students in order for them to attain an effective learning achievement.
1.6 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The research specifically examines the effects of single parenthood on learning achievement among students in Junior Secondary Schools in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Single parenthood: Is a parent who cares for one or more children without the physical assistance of the other biological parent in the home.
Learning: Learning as viewed by (Illeris, 2000; Ormorod, 1995) is a process of bringing together cognitive, emotional and environmental influences and experiences for acquiring, enhancing or making changes in one’s knowledge, skill, value and world.
Achievement: This is doing what one wishes to do within one’s bound of the law.