SOME FEATURES OF SUPERVISION OF TEACHER IN NIGERIAN SCHOOL
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1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Teaching and learning activities of the school. Supervision has been conceived as the improvement of teaching and learning process for the ultimate benefit of the learner who is regarded as the pivot of education. In the same vein, Supervision is essentially a leadership function, a kind of superior subordinate relationship, where a leader or an officer instructs, oversees and corrects subordinates in order to enhance effective performance. Supervision is needed in effective and efficient school activities, so that educators can really give their best in their various duties posts and as well make extra ordinary contribution to brandishing learners who will be capable of competing globally with their counterparts. Adelakun (2005).
Supervision of teacher is the means by which subordinate staff of the school are mobilized and motivated towards the full attainment of the goals and objectives of the school they serve. Supervision ensures that the right thing is done through direction and monitoring of teacher activities in school. That is making checks and balances to some specially assigned duties.
Key (2000) defines Supervision in education as “that phrase of school administration which focuses primarily on the achievement of education aims and objectives. He further opines that supervision is an activity which involves guiding refreshing, encouraging, improving and overseeing the teaching and learning with the hope of asking that co-operation of the teachers in order for the supervisor to be successful in his supervisory functions.
The major goal of most nations of the world has been the achievement of educational excellence. This is so, because education has been adjudged the key with any nation could permanently close the door of poverty and ignorance, and simultaneously open the door of prosperity in terms of economic buoyancy, social advancement and civilization. Since education is accepted to be an instrument of change alongside the element of growth, teachers are the operators of the instrument while the students could be regarded as the raw materials on which the changes would be manifested over a period of time.
However, both the teacher and students’ input are quite important and relevant to the school system, for they are the principal actors on stage. In the process of teaching and learning, some extraneous variables sometimes interfere with the plans and patterns of operation within the school, the teachers personality, his attitude to work, motivation, discipline, student background and environment which would individually or collectively have either positive or negative effects on the school system and its end results.
The process of supervision is complex and it pervades the whole structure of the school system. There seems to be little or no area of operation within the school where the need for supervision would not arise, but it may be in varying degrees. Teachers have been accused of divided loyalty, non-chalant attitude and indiscipline among the teacher and the students was also discovered. There is a constant comparison of the past with the present, more especially when government or voluntary agencies or school inspectors are compared with those of today. Parents do complain about their children or ward’s inability to communicate effectively in other languages apart from their mother tongue. With this, they thought the school system is fast losing its glamour and orientation, which is indirectly affecting the attainment of the national aims of education. It is therefore very importance for these concerns to critically look into the crucial areas within the school system that requires supervision, these are the instructional and discipline areas, where both the content method and mode of delivery and personality of both the student and the teachers are examined to ensure their adequacy for the school system. Ajibade (1993).
In teaching and learning situation, the materials to be transformed are the children. The people involved in the process of transforming the child in the school are the most appropriate academically qualified personnel’s being appointed to involve in this channel. Well qualified masters are also made head of department in school to co-ordinate the work of the teachers involved in the teaching of their various special subjects.
The secondary schools system in Ogun State has under gone series of changes in administration these was a period when the secondary schools were been managed under the voluntary agencies like the Baptist, Roman Catholic, Private Owners and others together with the Local Education Authority. During those day’s principals of secondary schools were chosen by the administrative assistance of various agencies and the local education officer. At this period of time no university agreed rules and policy exists is such voluntary agency has her own criteria. The principal at that time worked in close relation with the administrative assistance in the running of the secondary school since the quality of an educational system of a country depends to a large extent on the qualities of the leaders, thus the opportunity open to principals in participating in the teaching and learning format of the school was in adequate as it did not allow for principals initiatives. The principal plays an important role in determines the kind of human being those students under his control will be later in the adult life. Therefore, it is advisable for the principal to know those qualities that are expected of him.
Effective supervision of the school ensure proper function and mutual interaction of both human and non-human resources involved in the processing of the child and harmonize the efforts of all designated school personnel. The adverse effects of supervision may lead to a situation instead of being objective, he will be subjective and this supervision may lead to a situation whereby both the principal and the teachers put in their very best in order to satisfy the supervisor, after which they withdraw their efforts at the end of supervision. This leads to a kind of eye service performance in the school.
Regular and through inspection of secondary school will meet the challenge posed by the rapidly changing school curriculum. It will also prevent the inculcation of poor curriculum into the mind of the student which if allowed to be taught would lead to the promotion of “half naked” school leavers and instead turning out productive student they will graduate to be liabilities to themselves In particular and to the society in general, therefore make the aims and purpose of education to be defeated. How best to get the optimum out of the school system in face of declining input has been a major problem facing the school system. How best to make both the learner and the teacher productive has also been the source of anxiety within and outside the school system. Generally, how to make the school system responsive to the need of the society individually and collectively has been a major concern for all the citizenry.
However, when all resource are in place, the need to monitor the operation within the school system and by making use of the materials or resource effectively so as to get the best out of the school system. Hence, teaching and learning are the major activities going on in the school; therefore, there is a need for efficiency and effectiveness.
This study is therefore carried out to investigate the effect of principal’s role supervision on teachers’ effectiveness in some secondary school in Water side Local Government Area of Ogun State.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The study is borne out of the teachers’ ineffective teaching performance observed recently in Secondary schools, where teachers do what they like. It is assumed that the achievement of any student may be an indication of the teachers’ effectiveness in teaching. The main problem of this study is to find out the supervisory role played by principals on teachers’ teaching effectiveness? How effective is the supervisory role of the ministry of education on the secondary school. And how teachers of all these selected secondary schools performing their job.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH
The Purpose of this study is to determine the effects of supervision on teachers towards the effective performance in teaching-learning situation. It has been realized that one of the most paramount factors that can hinder that student’s academic performance in school is in the effectiveness of any given teacher toward students learning abilities.
To determine teacher whether teachers’ supervision activities have contributed to their effectiveness in school, it is also necessary to look into teachers’ supervisory role and its outcome. The study is also aimed at detecting how this supervision of teacher would be in continuous form so as to bring about improvement in the school activities especially in secondary schools.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
Attention will be taken and given adequately on the following question
- How do we determine effectiveness of teaching as regards the teaching and learning process?
- What are the roles of supervision operating in some secondary school?
- How can we promote effectiveness in teachers’ performance?
- What are the factors militating against teachers performance during teaching and learning exercise.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
In the study, the following null hypotheses will be tested:-
Ho 1: There is no significant relationship between Principals’ supervisory
roles and teachers teaching effectiveness in secondary schools in Ogun waterside Local Government Area of Ogun State.
Ho 2: There is no significant relationship between Principals’ supervisory
roles and the quality of educational outcomes in secondary school education in Ogun waterside Local Government of Ogun state.
Ho 3: There is no significant relationship between Principals’ delegations of
supervisory roles and teachers responses to class activities in secondary schools in Ogun waterside Local Government Area of Ogun State.
Ho 4: There is no significant difference in supervisory roles performed by
school Principals and Ministry of Education in Ogun waterside Local Government Areas of Ogun State.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study would provide useful information to the government, educational agencies and school administrators. The finding would further reveal the important and the effects of supervision on teachers’ effectiveness.
Secondary school education in Nigeria is growing rapidly in number and population in recent times. The increase in number and population of secondary schools has led to an increase in demand for qualified and unqualified teachers in the schools.
Finally, the study might help in revitalizing the issue of falling standard of education as a result of poor administration while it demands proper organization and planning. Thereby making the society to benefit from the study and also help in making effective use of human and materials resource that are available to the schools in the society.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope for this study comprised of some selected public secondary schools in Ogun waterside Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Both the teachers and the principals of these selected schools form the target population for this study.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to some secondary schools teachers and principals in Ogun waterside Local Government Area of Ogun State. In a research of this nature, one must anticipate some difficulties to arise particularly in the process of gathering necessary data for the study.
Some of these problems may include:-
- Lack of recognition by teacher about the importance of this research study.
- Some of them might think of implicating themselves by filling the questionnaires.
- Collection of the questionnaire might also pose problem because the teachers might misplace them and another set might need to be distributed.
- Time and financial constrained might also hinder adequate research on the topic of the study.
1.9 OPERATION DEFINING OF TERMS
It is important to state the operational definitions of the concepts used or the term used in the study. The term includes:
INVESTIGATION: The act of making enquiry into a particular study at hand. That is, going very deep into a subject matter.
SUPERVISION: This is to see that the right thing is done through directing and proper monitoring. This means acting as a check and balances to some specially assigned duties.
TEACHER: Someone who makes other people learn what they may not have known. A teacher is someone whose job is to impact knowledge to others.
EFFECTIVENESS: Result produced due to an action taken on the long run, which is interesting enough to be noticed.
PERFORMANCE: Action seen, noticed or felt due to its effects on other people.
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