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EFFECTS OF ROAD CONDITION ON FUEL CONSUMPTION IN NIGERIA

EFFECTS OF ROAD CONDITION ON FUEL CONSUMPTION IN NIGERIA

CIVIL ENGINEERING PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS ON EFFECTS OF ROAD CONDITION ON FUEL CONSUMPTION IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the study

Road conditions are the collection of factors describing the ease of driving on a particular stretch of road, or on the roads of a particular locality, including the quality of the pavement surface, roughness or potholes, road markings, and weather. However, ride quality as a measure of pavementroughness plays an important role in users’ level of comfort and operating costs. As It is observed that in Public Roads, smooth roads cost transportation agencies less over the life of the pavement and result in decreased highway user operating costs, delayed costs, decreased fuel consumption and decreased maintenance costs. Thus, “not only do the users want smooth roads for comfort, smooth roads cost less for fuel consumption (Oni, 2018).

Many drivers have experienced a bumpy ride at some point, whether on highway road or an inner city side street. In fact, roughness is probably one of the better-understood properties of pavements, both in a qualitative way by the average driver or passenger, and in a quantitative way by road engineers. Roughness simply means how bumpy or smooth a road is, which is an indicator of not only how comfortable owners ride will be, but also the wear and tear on the vehicle, its fuel efficiency, and the maintenance needs of the road. In the context of transport, fuel economy is the energy efficiency of a particular vehicle, is given as a ratio of distance travelled per unit of fuel consumed. Fuel efficiency is dependent on many parameters of a vehicle including its engine parameters, aerodynamic drag, and Weight and rolling resistance. The fuel consumption of vehicles depend upon various aspects of the driving pattern, ie. Speed and acceleration profile which varies with the external conditions. It is now a well known fact that powered two wheeler occupy a leading position in the transportation sector both in the urban and rural areas. It is not surprising that the production and sales of two wheelers have been surpassing those of passenger cars by nearly a factor of five consistently for the last several years (Zaniewski, Butler, Cunningham, Elkins and Paggi, 2018).

Roughness is a metric associated with pavement vehicle interaction (PVI), an umbrella term referring to the myriad resistive forces that a car experiences as it travels down a road. PVI is generally attributed to three primary factors: roughness (the focus of this report), surface texture, and deflection. In a previous report, Where the Rubber Meets the Road: Estimating the Impact of Deflection-Induced Pavement-Vehicle Interaction on Fuel Consumption (Akbarian 2013), deflection’s effect on fuel efficiency is modeled by means of a road’s materials and design. This novel approach provides a robust quantitative means for understanding deflection, which has the potential for incorporation into life cycle assessment (LCA) models used to quantify environmental impacts. Further, it allows for deflection-induced fuel consumption to be inferred rather than measured, since the actual physical presence is quite small and challenging to measure.

1.2       Statement of the problem

Rough roads are about more than just an uncomfortable ride. The roughness of a road is one indicator of how soon a road needs maintenance or reconstruction, which is tied to federal and state budget allocations. Furthermore, rougher roads can decrease the efficiency of a vehicle, increasing fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions. While roughness is a common measurement, its impact on fuel efficiency is less understood. It has been reported that problems of transportation participants and road conditions are the main factors that lead to road traffic accidents. It has further been specifically noted that weather conditions and road conditions are interlinked as weather conditions affect the road conditions. Specific aspects of road conditions can be of particular importance for particular purposes. For example, for autonomous vehicles such as self-driving cars, significant road conditions can include shadowing and lighting changes, road surface texture changes, and road markings consisting of circular reflectors, dashed lines, and solid lines.

1.3       Objective of the study

The general objective of this study is to examine the effects of road condition on fuel consumption in Lagos State with the following objectives of the study:

  1. To examine the effect of rolling resistance and fuel consumption
  2. To examine surface texture effect on rolling resistance
  3. To examine the variation of fuel consumption at different speed range for two wheelers
  4. To identify types of problem arising from poor road condition

1.4       Research questions

  1. What is the effect of rolling resistance and fuel consumption?
  2. Does surface texture affect rolling resistance?
  3. What is the variation of fuel consumption at different speed range for two wheelers?
  4. What are the types of problem arising from poor road condition?

1.5 Significance of the study

This work will provide tremendous help to a number of people or groups. The work will be of great help to decision-makers because useful suggestions have been made about appropriate road condition that, if adopted, would help the roads to be more effective. For road maintenance agency, this work helped to raise awareness of the roles that society expects of them and how to efficiently provide good roads. This work will also enlighten students and other researchers on how to conduct academic research and will teach them a thorough knowledge of road condition and fuel consumption.

1.6 Scope of the study

This work is limited to the topic road condition and fuel consumption. The focus is on areas in Lagos State namely: Alimosho, Apapa, Eti-Osa, Ikeja, Kosofe, Shomolu, Mushin and Surulere. The work therefore centers on surface texture and rolling resistance.

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1.7 Limitation of study

This research work is limited by the time frame in which the researcher is supposed to complete it. Again, the fact that this research is done when the researcher is taking courses, including exam preparation, made the work very complex for her to focus very well on the research. Finance may be another constraint. The high cost of journals and textbooks does not help things.

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