PRODUCTION OF BLACK AND BROWN POLISH

PRODUCTION OF BLACK AND BROWN POLISH
ABSTRACT

Shoe polish (or boot polish), usually a waxy paste or a cream, is a consumer product used to shine, waterproof, and restore the appearance of leather shoes or boots, thereby extending the footwear’s life. Various substances have been used as shoe polish for hundreds of years, starting with natural substances such as wax and tallow. Modern polish formulate were introduced early in the 20th century and some products from that era are still in use today. Today, shoe polish is usually made from a mix of natural and synthetic materials, including naphtha, turpentine, dyes, and gum arabic, using straightforward chemical engineering processes. Shoe polish can be toxic, and, if misused, can stain skin.

CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION
1.1     BACKGROUND OF STUDY
1.2     USES OF THE STUDY
1.3     AIMS OF THE PROJECT
1.4     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.5     PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
1.6     THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.7     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

CHAPTER TWO
2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1      HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF POLISH
2.2     LEATHER POLISH
2.3     CAE WAXES
2.4     FORMULATION OF SHOE POLISH
2.5     WAXES
2.6     IMPORTANT WAXES IN THE MANUFACTURE OF SHOE POLISH
2.7     SOLVENTS FOR POLISH PRODUCTION

CHAPTER THREE
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
3.1      RAW MATERIALS NEEDED TO PRODUCE POLISH
3.2      EQUIPMENT REQUIRED
3.3      PRODUCTION PROCESS

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0     EXPERIMENTAL RESULT

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1     DISCUSSION
5.2     CONCLUSION
5.3     RECDOMMENDATION
5.4     REFERENCES

 

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

Shoe polish (or boot polish), is a waxy paste, cream, or liquid used to polish, shine, and waterproof leather shoes or boots to extend the footwear’s life, and restore, maintain and improve their appearance.
Various substances have been used as shoe polish for hundreds of years, starting with natural substances such as wax and tallow. Modern polish formulas were introduced early in the 20th century and many of those original formulations are still in use today. Today, shoe polish is usually made from a mix of natural and synthetic materials, including naphtha, turpentine, dyes, and gum arabic, using straightforward chemical engineering processes. Shoe polish is usually flammable, can be toxic, and, if misused, can stain skin. It should be used in a well-ventilated area with care taken to protect clothes, carpet and furniture.
The popularity of shoe polish paralleled a general rise in leather and synthetic shoe production, beginning in the 19th century and continuing into the 20th. The World Wars saw a surge in demand for the product, in order to polish army boots.

1.1                                               USES OF THE PROJECT

Shoe polish is applied to the shoe using a rag, cloth, or brush. Shoe polish is not a cleaning product, and therefore the footwear should be both clean and dry before application. A vigorous rubbing action to apply the polish evenly on the boot, followed by further buffing with a clean dry cloth or brush, usually provides good results. Another technique, known as spit-polishing or bull polishing, involves gently rubbing polish into the leather with a cloth and a drop of water or spit. This achieves the mirror-like, high-gloss finish sometimes known as a spit shine or bull which is especially valued in military organizations. It must be mentioned that those in the military do not use actual “spit” to spit shine their boots and shoes. Spit contains enzymes that break down the polish so that it does not shine, but remains dull. Polishes containing carnauba wax can be used as a protective coating to extend the life and look of a leather shoe.
Shoe polish may be purchased pre-soaked into a hard sponge, which can be used to buff leather without needing to apply any additional polish to either the leather or the sponge. This is usually known as an applicator. A number of companies that manufacture shoe care products also sell a liquid shoe polish in a squeezable plastic bottle, with a small sponge applicator at the end. To decrease its viscosity, bottled polish usually has a very low wax content.
There are many products closely related to shoe polish, but not strictly considered as such. Other chemical products may be used to clean and shine shoes—in particular whiteners for white shoes, and a variety of sprays and aerosols for cleaning and waterproofing suede shoes.[3] A banana peel can also be used to effectively shine shoes.
Although shoe polish is primarily intended for leather shoes, some brands specify that they may be used on non-porous materials, such as vinyl. The polish is generally the same colour as the shoes it will be used upon, or it may be neutral, lacking any intrinsic colour.

1.2                                                 AIMS OF THE STUDY
Shoe Polish is an essential household need in every home. Due to its high demand, the available products in the market can’t meet the need of every final consumer out there. So production of this product will help supplement the imported ones.

1.3                                       OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
The objective of this project among other things include;
1   To produce shoe polish which will suit the weather of this country.
2   Produce polish of high quality at minimum cost5
3   To conserve foreign exchange and help solve the problem of balance of payment resulting from, the importation of polishes  to offset the unnecessary.
4   To help complement the efforts of existing factories toward meeting the rising demand of product.
5   To create employment opportunities by establishing polish industry.
6   To reduce the depending on government for employment by having individual investment and becoming self reliant

1.4                                                 PURPOSE OF STUDY
Purpose of this work is to produce BLACK AND BROWN shoe polish.

1.5                                        SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Considering the fact that there are few or practically no functional polish industry in the country, and the imported polish most atimes do not meet up with the local weather conditions, this research project will help to find solution to these problems.  And at the same time offer local alternatives to these imported products.  It will equally be an avenue for finding means of increasing our domestic national product.
Importantly, exploiting the benefit offered by this research work will help in improving the qualities of polishes produced.  This will help in making the polish industry a viable venture, whose product could be exported thereby serving as a foreign exchange earner for the country.
1.6                                             SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
The research project covers feasibility study, scouting and acquisition of the necessary raw materials required for the production, formulations research and the production of the polish samples.  Other areas are, analytical test of product qualities as compared with some commercial brands, evaluation of the project, discussion, conclusion and recommendations.

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