DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERCOM
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This work is on design and implementation of an intercom. An intercom is a telecommunications device that enables voice communication without the need to run copper wires between intercom stations. An intercom (intercommunication device), talkback is a stand-alone voice communications system for use within a building or small collection of buildings, functioning independently of the public telephone network. Intercoms are generally mounted permanently in buildings and vehicles. Intercoms can incorporate connections to public address loudspeaker systems, walkie talkies, telephones, and to other intercom systems. Some intercom systems incorporate control of devices such as signal lights and door latches.
An intercom (intercommunication device), talkback is a stand-alone voice communications system for use within a building or small collection of buildings, functioning independently of the public telephone network. Intercoms are generally mounted permanently in buildings and vehicles. Intercoms can incorporate connections to public address loudspeaker systems, walkie talkies, telephones, and to other intercom systems. Some intercom systems incorporate control of devices such as signal lights and door latches.
Traditional intercoms and public address systems are composed entirely of analogue electronics components but many new features and interfacing options can be accomplished with new intercom systems based on digital connections. Video signals can be carried as well as voice. Digital intercom stations can be connected using Cat 5 cable and can even use existing computer networks as a means of interfacing distant parties.
Many schools and office buildings now use audio / video systems to identify visitors trying to gain access to a locked building, and can be interfaced with the building’s access control system.
Intercom systems can be found on many types of vehicles including trains, watercraft, aircraft and armored fighting vehicles.
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
The objective of this work is design a device that is used to communicate with people outside and inside a building.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
Using an intercom system in your home or office can save time and provide a more effective communication channel.
Intercom system provides functions ranging from convenience to security. Conversations can be held between individuals in different parts of the home and in the case of injury or emergency.
Not only are home intercoms used for communication, but they can be used for entertainment as well. Intercom is a form of entertainment provided by a home intercom system is the ability to play the same radio station in rooms throughout your home.
1.4 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE PROJECT
Many businesses and individuals use the intercom system as a security system. The intercom doubles up as a security system as well as an amenity. This system has become so common that many builders provide the intercom system free for people who buy new houses in their buildings. Though it is a good enough security system, it has some disadvantages and advantages. Here is a brief discussion about the various advantages and disadvantages of the intercom system.
The intercom system is best for places that have a low crime rate, where at the most one has to fend off is an annoying salesperson or a panhandler. In these situations, with the help of an intercom system, the homeowner can interact with these individuals without actually coming down to the doorway to shoo them away. This system is highly useful in places like mansions, standalone bungalows, or areas with an attached garden. In such scenarios, people living in the house can find out who is at the door without going all the way through the home and garden, only to find out that the person at the door is not someone they wanted to meet anyway. This system is a good idea because it gives an audio visual of the person at the door, so the person inside the house has an exact idea of who wants to visit them, who they are with, and in some cases, they can even find out what they want.
The intercom system also works as an excellent free communication system between people on the same connection. In apartment buildings, the security and the help can use the intercom to convey any important information to the people living in the house. People in the house can also use the intercom to speak to other people living in the building and connected via the same line.
However, the intercom is not a security system in the most traditional sense. It just allows the user to find out information about whoever decides to call on them, and decides to come in through the main door. The intercom would be patently useless against career criminals who have already devised ways to get into the apartment or the bungalow through other venues and not the door.
This system just stops unsavory people from coming into the house via the main entry, and does not have any features that might stop them from scaling a wall or a window. For an intercom to make an actual impact, the user will have to install surveillance cameras all along the surrounding area along with the intercom system. In this way, they will be able to ensure that the person they just denied entry is not trying to come in through a window.
These are some of the advantages and disadvantages of the intercom systems. While it is not a great security system on its own, it does play a very important role in rounding off the security system of any house. There are several kinds of intercom systems available, and you would need to research a bit to find out which fulfils your requirements.
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
- When using an intercom system, anyone in the room of the sender or recipient of the message can hear the conversation. Communication might have to be repeated if static or poor sound quality exists in the intercom.
- An intercom is an electronic communications system within a building or group of buildings. They are generally composed of fixed microphone/speaker units which connect to a central control panel.
- This circuit is based upon theoretical calculations and may require practical changes to be made while implementing the circuit in hardware.
- This is designed for loudspeakers with low range and hence cannot be used at large buildings.
- This requires a changeover switch.
1.6 APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT
- This circuit can be used as a home intercom circuit.
- It can be used at small buildings like coffee shops and small offices.
- This circuit can also be installed in vehicles.
1.7 PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT
(1) The main objective of this project is to construct a three way wired intercom that will help two persons or more to communicate with each other within a particular domain, like offices homes, warehouse e.t.c.
(2) To build a telephone that will transmit signal via a medium at no cost.
(3) To immensely help the engineering students understand the technology behind three way simple intercom and its practical development.
1.8 SCOPEOF PROJECT
The scope of this project work design of simple two way intercom system is to limited to the design, construction and test on a two station simple intercom system with specification that;
I. The demodulator should operate with a minimum distortion while producing an adequate output
II. The small signal amplifier must provide an undistorted signal into the buffer amplifier to be able to drive a speaker of 8 ohms impedance.
III. A 9 volt d.c power supply is to be design and employed to power the simple intercom for operation at each station.
IV. Result shall fully be discussed while suggestions for further study made.
1.8 PROJECT WORK ORGANISATION
The various stages involved in the development of this project have been properly put into five chapters to enhance comprehensive and concise reading. In this project thesis, the project is organized sequentially as follows:
Chapter one of this work is on the introduction to an intercom. In this chapter, the background, significance, objective limitation and problem of an intercom were discussed.
Chapter two is on literature review of an intercom. In this chapter, all the literature pertaining to this work was reviewed.
Chapter three is on design methodology. In this chapter all the method involved during the design and construction were discussed.
Chapter four is on testing analysis. All testing that result accurate functionality was analyzed.
Chapter five is on conclusion, recommendation and references.