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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN AUTOMATIC DOOR BELL WITH OBJECT DETECTION

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN AUTOMATIC DOOR BELL WITH OBJECT DETECTION
ABSTRACT

Automatic Door Bell with Object Detection detects when a visitor comes to our house. When someone comes to our house and he searches for the doorbell switch and then rings it to let us know his presence. If the who came to our house cannot find the doorbell or else if the person is so short that he cannot reach the doorbell, what can be done? How will it be if we use an automatic doorbell which rings as soon as a person arrives at our place? There are no more hassles. The person who comes to our house need not search for the doorbell and press it any more. If we install this automatic doorbell using object detection circuit, the circuit will automatically sense the presence of the person and it rings the doorbell.

This circuit operates using a pair of ultrasonic transmitter and receiver modules which are used to detect the person and then if the person is detected, the door bell is automatically turned ON when the person is in-front of the door.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page
Approval Page
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table of Content
CHAPTER ONE
1.0     Introduction
1.1     Objective of the project
1.2     Purpose of the project
1.3     Limitation of the project
1.4     Advantages and disadvantages of the project
1.5     Application of the project

CHAPTER TWO
2.0     Literature review
2.1     review of doorbell
2.2   historical background of the project
2.3      review of the difference between sine wave and modified sine wave   inverter.
CHAPTER THREE
3.0     Construction
3.1     system block diagram
3.2      system operation
3.3       circuit description
3.4     description of components used

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULT ANALYSIS
4.0     Construction Procedure and Testing
4.1     Casing and Packaging
4.2     Assembling of Sections
4.3     Testing of System Operation
4.4      Cost Analysis

CHAPTER FIVE 
5.0     Conclusion
5.1     Recommendation
5.2     References

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1                                                      INTRODUCTION

1.2                          BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
The necessity for some means by which someone on the outside of a door could notify someone on the inside of his presence has been recognized for centuries. The earliest solution to this problem consisted of the simple expedient of knocking on the door with one’s fist. As the human race grew in wisdom and technical sophistication, new and subtler methods were invented. The first of these was the mechanical door knocker, which saved man untold pain from bruised knuckles. Then with the advent of electronics came the electrical door bell, the evolution of which over the past two decades has seen the invention of a number of methods capable of detecting the approach of a person to a door at a distance and triggering the production of an appropriate sound on the inside of the door. Unfortunately, all such methods devised so far suffer from disadvantages which have prevented their widespread application to residential doors.
These methods can be divided into three categories on the basis of the principle used to detect the approaching person. The first category involves the use of a mechanical switch which is activated when the person steps on it. The second involves the use of a photoelectric sensor and a light source arranged so that the person casts a shadow on the sensor as he approaches the door. The third involves some type of capacitance proximity sensor which detects the change in capacitive coupling between a metal sensor plate and ground, or between two plates mounted on or near the door, that results when a person approaches them.
None of the three categories has achieved wide acceptance in residential applications, principally because they are all difficult to install, limiting their usefulness primarily to those instances when they can be built in during the construction of the building.
The mechanical switch method requires that a mat containing many such switches be placed in front of the door in such a way that anyone approaching the door must step on it. Not only are such mats highly unaesthetic, but it must be connected to the sound producing unit inside the house, requiring that a hole be drilled through a wall. This sort of installation is beyond what most homeowners have the time or skill to attempt, and is therefore usually done by professionals, greatly increasing total cost.
The photoelectric method requires that a light source and photodetector be mounted on either side of the path leading to the door. Here again, installation is usually done by professionals, and unless it is possible to hide the units in shrubbery, the light source and detector can be even more unaesthetic than a mat.
Installation of a doorbell based on a capacitance proximity sensor is somewhat simpler than that of a mechanical switch or photoelectric unit in that the entire device can be mounted on the inside of the door. However, in order to obtain even the minimal detection range of two feet, metal sensor plates of several square feet must be used, and while these cannot be seen from the outside they are painfully obvious from the inside.
In order to overcome the disadvantages of the methods discussed, it is clear that the ideal automatic doorbell would consist of a single small battery-operated unit, requiring no electrical connections at all. Installation would consist of driving a nail into the door and hanging the unit from it. The automatic doorbell herein described seeks to meet these criteria.

1.2                                             OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
The objective of this work is to design a device will automatically sense the presence of the person and it rings the doorbell. This circuit is used to detect the person and then if the person is detected, the door bell is automatically turned ON when the person is in-front of the door.

1.3                                         ADVANTAGE & DISADVANTAGE

  • Saves time for searching door bell switch.
  • Saves electricity.
  • Enhances security.
  • Saves manpower.

1.4                                              PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT
Here we are going to see some points regarding to purpose behind choosing this topic & what is the requirement of this type of the project in our day to day life.

  • Saves time for searching door bell
  • Save electricity
  •  Enhance security
  • Save manpower

 

1.5                                    APPLICATIONS OF THE PROJECT

  • The circuit can be used as a door bell by connecting the supply to a switch.
  • With some modifications it can be used to produce different sounds.

    1.6                                   LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT

  • As the applied voltage is 9V, it cannot produce more sound.

1.7                          PROJECT WORK ORGANISATION
The various stages involved in the development of this project have been properly put into five chapters to enhance comprehensive and concise reading. In this project thesis, the project is organized sequentially as follows:
Chapter one of this work is on the introduction to an automatic door bell with object detection. In this chapter, the background, significance, objective limitation and problem of an automatic door bell with object detection were discussed.
Chapter two is on literature review of an automatic door bell with object detection. In this chapter, all the literature pertaining to this work was reviewed.
Chapter three is on design methodology. In this chapter all the method involved during the design and construction were discussed.
Chapter four is on testing analysis. All testing that result accurate functionality was analyzed.
Chapter five is on conclusion, recommendation and references.

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