ASSEMBLING OF PENTIUM-4 COMPUTER
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This project work is assembling of computer system. Computer system generally refers to a set of electronics hardware components assembled together for the purpose of performing some basic operation with much regard to speed and accuracy. A lot of people may want to see a computer system as a machine which specializes in taking information from the outside world, process the information according to some pre determined set of instructions and give out the processed information in a given from according to the predetermined instructions. The computer system can be viewed from much perspective depending on the users view. In all this the computer system consists of two parts to carry out its function properly. (1) The hardware component (Ii) The software component. (i) The hardware component in a computer refers to the physical parts that are assembled together to carry out the function. ii) The software refers to the set of instructional codes called programs which the computer depend upon for its effective operation. Another way of describing a computer is in terms of what the computer is capable of doing, we can look at the role of computer n data processing, numerical computation, workstations automatic control systems and electronic systems.
In this particular project is on assembling of a Pentium 4 computer. The Pentium 4 is a type, or class, of computer processor developed and manufactured by Intel. The Pentium 4 processor was a single core processor, used in desktop and laptop computers. The first Pentium 4 processor was codenamed Willamette and was capable of speeds from 2.2 GHz to 3.0 GHz.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLE
- OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
- SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
- LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
- RESEARCH QUESTION
- STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
- LITERATURE REVIEW
- HISTORY OF PENTIUM 4 COMPUTER
- REVIEW OF PENTIUM-4 MICROARCHITECTURE
- REVIEW OF PROCESSOR CORES
3.1 THINGS TO CONSIDER BEFORE ASSEMBLING A COMPUTER
3.2 TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTUSED FOR ASSEMBLING COMPUTER
3.3 PREPARATION FOR ASSEMBLING
3.5 ASSEMBLING METHOD
3.6 OTHER CONNECTIONS
4.0 ADDITIONAL HARDWARE AND PERIPHERALS
4.2 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
A Pentium-4 computer is a line of single-core desktop and laptop central processing units (CPUs) introduced by Intel on November 20, 2000 and shipped through August 8, 2008. This processor was the successor to the Pentium III processor.
The first Pentium 4 processor was codenamed Willamette and was capable of speeds from 2.2 GHz to 3 GHz. To use this processor, a motherboard was required to have a Socket 423 CPU socket. Future versions of the Pentium 4 processor included the Northwood and Prescott, using different CPU sockets like Socket 478 and LGA 775. The highest speed Pentium 4 was a Prescott version, clocking in at 3.8 GHz. Laptop versions of the Pentium 4 processor were developed as well, called the Pentium 4-M and Mobile Pentium 4. These processors used less wattage when running and generated less heat, both of which were necessities for use in a laptop.
Hyper-threading technology was also introduced with the Pentium 4 processor. This technology allowed the single-core processor to act and function like two logical processors. This helped to increase computing performance and running more applications on a single computer
A Pentium-4 computer is made up of a case (or chassis) which houses several important internal components, and provides places to connect the external components, including non-peripherals.
Inside the case go the following internal parts:
- Power Supply/PSU – power supply unit, converts outlet power, which is alternating current (AC), to direct current (DC) which is required by internal components, as well as providing appropriate voltages and currents for these internal components.
- Motherboard/main board – As the name indicates, this is the electronic centerpiece of the computer: everything else connects to the motherboard.
- Processor/CPU – central processing unit, the “brain” of the computer, most actual computation takes place here.
- RAM – random access memory, the “short-term memory” of a computer, used by the CPU to store program instructions and data upon which it is currently operating. Data in RAM is lost when the computer is powered off, thus necessitating a hard drive.
Optional components follow: (Components that depend on the function that will be given to the machine). 4GB ram was used in this work.
- Hard Drive/Hard Disk – the “long-term memory” of the computer, used for persistent storage – i.e. the things stored on it remain even when the computer is powered down. The operating system, and all your programs and data are stored here. The hard disk used for this work is 500GB hard disk.
- Optical Drive – device for reading/writing optical disks. May read CDs, DVDs, or other optical media, depending on the type. It is essential for installing many operating systems and programs. It may be able to write some of these discs, as well. Some people like to have two such drives for copying disks.
- Video Card/Graphics Card/GPU – does processing relating to video output. Some motherboards have an “onboard” GPU built in so you don’t need (but may add) a separate video card. Otherwise, you will need a video card. These plug into a slot on the motherboard and provide a place to connect a monitor to your computer.
- Sound card
On top of the internal components listed above, you will also need these external components:
- Keyboard – for typing on. Many motherboards won’t even boot without a keyboard attached.
- Mouse – for pointing and clicking. Unless you chose a text-based operating system, you will likely want one of these.
- Monitor – This is where the pretty pictures go. They come in many forms, the most common being CRT and LCD. The monitor used is 17” flat monitor
These are the parts that a standard PC will use.
- OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
The objective of this work is assembling a complete Pentium-4 computer with ATX motherboard, 500GB hard disk drive, 2GB RAM and 18.5 inches monitor.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The important of carrying out this particular project as a student is that: This project has exposed me to the function of a computer system, the hardware components. It has made it clear for me to know the function of all internal and external components of the computer system.
The study has exposed me to the history and full meaning of Pentium 4 computer and its capacity and the uniqueness of Pentium 4 computer.
1.3 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
This work will cover the assembly of a personal computer. The order I used to assemble in can be changed depending on the circumstance of your build, ie. Case, CPU cooler, special components, dimension restrictions, newer technology. The process of assembling your own PC is actually very simple in contrast to most people’s expectations. Compared to researching part selection, actual assembly is a much simpler task.
Many prospective builders are often overwhelmed at the idea of assembling their own PC from scratch. However, over the years, the desktop PC industry has become quite standardized. It’s almost impossible these days to install the individual pieces, cables and connectors in the wrong location. Many builders will often relate the process of assembling a PC to building Lego which can only fit together in a single way.
1.4 LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
Static electricity is the major problem builders used to face, after all, an invisible threat which has the potential to do damage to delicate and expensive components is a scary thought. A very commonly asked question is what precautions can be taken and which are necessary. In truth, the vast majority of experienced PC builders do not use grounded wrist straps and similar solutions and simply take basic precautions such as touching a grounded object (for instance the metal case of a plugged in appliance). However it is of note that ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) damage does not have to prevent booting or functionality totally and can cause minor damage which may only be evident as BSODs (Blue Screens of Death) in very specific circumstances.
A method some builders use is to plug in to the wall (but not switch on) your new PSU and touch that periodically in order to discharge any static.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
In addition, students will gain confidence with the components of desk top and laptop computers by learning the proper procedures for hardware and software installations, upgrades, and troubleshooting. By the end of the course, students will b e able to answer the following question:
● What is information technology (IT ) and describe the components of a personal computer ?
● How can one Protect herself or himself against accidents and injury, protect equipment from damage, protect data from los s , and protect the environment from contamination?
● What is the step by step assembly of a desk top computer tower?
● E x plain the purpose of preventive maintenance and identify the elements of the troubles hooting process
● Explain, install, and navigate an operating s y s tem; upgrade components based on customer need s and perform preventive maintenance and troubles hooting
1.6 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
When assembling a personal computer, there are a large number of potentially fatal mistakes a newcomer to computers (and even a veteran) can make while assembling his or her own system which can lead to damage of the system, they are as below:
- Wrong use of tool and wrong fixing of computer parts which can lead to overheating or damaging the motherboard. If you want to ensure that you won’t face overheating, random crashes (resets and the infamous “Blue Screen of Death”) and performance issues with your PC you should check whether it is assembled 100% correctly or not.
- Internal main power cord: In AT cases it is quite common to have the main power cord that connects the power supply to the power-on switch in front panel hanging loose over motherboard, often hindering the heat dissipation and even contacting the processor fan, causing it to stop running and PC to crash due to overheating. The ideal would be to lay this cable to the power supply switch by the right side of the case (facing front of case in upright position), in the upper part of the frame, and not hanging loose by left side, as it is common to find.
- Other loose cables: The same idea applies to all other cables inside the PC, like the power supply cables and the flat cables used to connect the hard disk drives, optical drives and floppy disk drives. You should fasten these cables with a cable holder and put them inside an empty 5 ¼” bay in order to prevent these cables from blocking the airflow inside the PC and also preventing them to stuck the CPU fan.
Antistatic foam: Most motherboards come from factory with antistatic foam (usually pink, white or black) in their packing. Many technicians, when installing the motherboard to the case, pinch this foam between motherboard and metallic chassis, thinking that this procedure will avoid that motherboard from touching the case metallic frame. It happens that this foam holds motherboard-generated heat, hindering the normal airflow that exists between motherboard and the case chassis. Therefore, it is quite common that a computer assembled using these foam crashes or issues random errors, due to the overheating.