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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN AUTOMATIC BATTERY CHARGER USING LM317

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN AUTOMATIC BATTERY CHARGER USING LM317

Abstract

This project is titled design and construction of an automatic battery charger using LM317. Automatic battery charger presented here is an acid battery charger that is designed to charge any acid battery using LM317 to supply the required current. The circuit can be used to charge 12Vlead acid batteries.
The heart of the circuit is IC LM 317, which is an adjustable voltage regulator IC. The pin 1 of the IC is the control pin which is used to control the charging voltage. The pin 2 is the output pin at which the charging voltage appears. The pin 3 is the input pin to which the regulated DC supply is given.

The charging voltage and current is controlled by the Transistor Q1, resistor R1 and POT R5.when the battery is first connected to the charging terminals, the current through R1 increases. This in turn increases the current and voltage from LM 317.When the battery is fully charged the charger reduces the charging current and the battery will be charged in the trickle charging mode.

The objective of this work is to design and construct an electrical/electronic equipment, an automatic battery charger using a LM317, that will supply electrical energy (charges) to a charge storage device; a battery, in a process to restore the battery’s used up energy.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page
Approval Page
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table of Content
CHAPTER ONE

  1. Introduction
    1.  Background of the project
    2. Aim/objective of the project
    3. Significance of project
    4. features of battery charger
    5. application of the project
    6. Limitation of the project

CHAPTER TWO
2.0      literature review
2.1      The concept of Battery charger
2.2      Review of different kinds of charger

    CHAPTER THREE
Specification and operation of system component
3.1    Description of  LM317 IC
3.2     Description of Resistor
3.3     Description of Capacitor
3.4     Description of Diode
3.5     Description of Transformer
3.6     Description of Transistor
3. 7     Description of L.E.D
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0      constructions
4.1      circuit operation
4.2      circuit diagram
4.3      components requirement
4.4     working of battery charger
4.5    components pin-out
4.6    power supply unit
4.7      power supply components
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0      Result analysis
5.1      installation of the complete design
5.2      construction procedure and testing
5.3      casing and packaging
5.4      assembling of section
5.4      testing of system operation
5.5      problems encountered
5.6      cost analysis
5.7      description of components used

CHAPTER ONE

1.1                               INTRODUCTION

A battery charger is an electrical device employed in charging batteries that are usually charged by battery charges are the storage batteries also known as “accumulators”.
The charger is made up of various electrical and electronics component which for the purpose of clanty are group into your basic unit they are:
The power supply units
The smoothing circuits
The regulating unit and
Regulated D.C charging units
A Battery charger comes in various designs and voltage.  The choice of a particular and of charger that depends largely int eh size of battery or battery or batteries which on mterds to charge the mini battery changer could be used to charge batteries whose voltage ranges from 6 – 12 volts.  The bigger battery changes are for batteries with voltage ranging from 12 – 48 volts.  These are the heavy duty batteries.
The battery charge is built in such a way that it delivers a constant value of d.c current into the battery it is charging in the opposite direction from which current flows on the batteries during discharge one cannot successfully design a battery charge with out a fundamental understanding of the accumulator because it also makes up the operation.

1.2                         OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
The objective of the project is to design a device that will recharge 12v car lead acid battery when discharged, a battery charger that will shut off the charging process once the battery attains full charge using lm317. This prevents overcharging of the battery so that, the charger can be left unattended.

1.3                       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
This device charges 12v acid battery mainly, however, if the output voltages are adjusted can be used to charge battery of lower or higher voltages. Apart from charging batteries, this device can also be used as a battery level monitor due to the battery level feature it contains.
The main advantages of this battery charger over other chargers is the ability of the charger to indicate battery charging levels and also the ability to stop charging when the battery is fully charged and resume charging when the battery level drops below  the set level.

1.4       FEACTURES OF AUTOMATIC BATTERY CHARGER
Features of automatic battery charger are as below:

  1. Automatic battery charger  has an indicator to indicate when the battery is fully charged
  2. It has a manually operated switch that is used to ON and OFF the entire system.
  3. It consumed less current but generate high current to the load.

1.6                        APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT
Battery charger is used in the following devices for the purpose of recharging device batteries:

  1. It is used in inverter
  2. It is used in cellphone
  3. It is used in Solar energy system
  4. It is used in vehicles
  5. It is used in an uninterruptible power supply(UPS), etc.

1.7                         LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
The only problem with this device is that it takes longer time to recharge car battery because of the low current output, and it is design only for a 12 battery.

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