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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A WIRELESS DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROLLER

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A WIRELESS DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROLLER
ABSTRACT

This project is titled the design and construction of a wireless dc motor speed controller. That is, varying the speed of DC motor from a remote place without any wire connection. The circuit was designed, and developed using pulse width modulation (PWM). PWM method was used to vary the speed of the DC motor. To make it, IR transmitter and IR sensor was used. There are two sections in the circuit: (1) PWM generator with IR modulator and (2) IR receiver and motor driver.  The transmitter generates PWM wave of 50hz (20ms) and modulates it over 38KHz frequency. The IR sensor on receiver side will demodulate the PWM wave and drives the DC motor.
The pulse width modulation can be achieved in several ways. In the present project, the PWM generation is done using IC555 timers. In order to have better speed regulation, it is required to have a feedback from the motor. The feedback can be taken either by using a tacho-generator or an optical encoder or the back EMF itself can be used .In present project, we implemented the feedback by using the EMF of the armature as the feedback signal. Speed control means intentional change of drive speed to a value required for performing the specific work process. This concept of speed control or adjustment should not be taken to include the natural change in speed which occurs due to change in the load on the shaft.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page
Approval Page
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table of Content

CHAPTER ONE
1.0      Introduction
1.1      significance of the project
1.2      Application of the project
1.3      scope of the project
1.4      purpose of the project
1.5      limitation of the project
1.6      project organisation

CHAPTER TWO
2.0     Literature review
2.1      Wireless DC Motor Speed Control Background
2.2 When Wireless DC Motor Control is Not the Solution
2.3 Emerging Wireless DC Motor Control
2.4 Review of Types of Wireless DC Motor Control Connections

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Construction
3.1 Block diagram
3.2 Wireless dc motor speed control circuit using IR and ic555
3.3 Circuit description
3.4 Power supply unit
3.5 Power supply components
3.6 Description of components used

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0      Construction Procedure and Testing
4.1      Casing and Packaging
4.2      Assembling of Sections
4.3      Testing of System Operation
4.4      Cost Analysis

CHAPTER FIVE 
5.0      Conclusion
5.1      Recommendation
5.2      Bibliography


CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                        INTRODUCTION
A DCmotor is a mechanically commutated electric motor powered from direct current (DC). The stator is stationary in space by definition and therefore the current in the rotor is switched by the commutator to also be stationary in space. This is how the relative angle between the stator and rotor magnetic flux is maintained near 90 degrees, which generates the maximum torque.
DC motors have a rotating armature winding (winding in which a voltage is induced) but non-rotating armature magnetic field and a static field winding (winding that produce the main magnetic flux) or permanent magnet. Different connections of the field and armature winding provide different inherent speed/torque regulation characteristics. The speed of a DC motor can be controlled by changing the voltage applied to the armature or by changing the field current. The introduction of variable resistance in the armature circuit or field circuit allowed speed control. Modern DC motors are often controlled by power electronics systems called DC drives.
The introduction of DC motors to run machinery eliminated the need for local steam or internal combustion engines, and line shaft drive systems. DC motors can operate directly from rechargeable batteries, providing the motive power for the first electric vehicles. Today DC motors are still found in applications as small as toys and disk drives, or in large sizes to operate steel rolling mills and paper machines.

Direct currents (DC) motors have been used in variable speed drives for a long time. The versatile characteristics of dc motors can provide high starting torques which is required for traction drives. Control over a wide speed range, both below and above the rated speed can be very easily achieved. The methods of speed control are simpler and less expensive than those of alternating current motors. There are different techniques available for the speed control of DC motors. The phase control method is widely adopted, but has certain limitations mainly it generates harmonics on the power line and it also has got pf when operated lower speeds. The second method is PWM technique, which has got better advantages over the phase control.
In the proposed project, wireless dc motor speed control is been designed. That is, varying the speed of DC motor from a remote place without any wire connection. The circuit was designed, and developed using pulse width modulation (PWM).
The pulse width modulation can be achieved in several ways. In the present project, the PWM generation is done using IC555 timers. In order to have better speed regulation, it is required to have a feedback from the motor. The feedback can be taken either by using a tacho-generator or an optical encoder or the back EMF itself can be used .In present project, we implemented the feedback by using the EMF of the armature as the feedback signal. Speed control means intentional change of drive speed to a value required for performing the specific work process. This concept of speed control or adjustment should not be taken to include the natural change in speed which occurs due to change in the load on the shaft.

1.2                                             OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
The objective of this work is constructing a device that will control the speed and direction of a dc motor wirelessly. This work is made up of major components: an input system for the transmitter, a wireless transmitter, a wireless receiver, and a motor controller connected to the receiver.

1.3                                              PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT
The purpose of this project is to build a system that can independently and wirelessly control DC motor speed. To do this, the system will need 4 core components: an input system for the transmitter, a wireless transmitter, a wireless receiver, and a motor controller connected to the receiver.

1.4                                           LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT

  1. Wireless communications are limited by the range of the transmitter.
  2. Cost of wireless communication system and components are high.
  3. When transmitting data, users must sometimes send smaller bits of data so the information moves more quickly. The size of the device that’s accessing the information is also still an issue.
  4. Many applications need to be reconfigured if they are going to be used through wireless connections.
  5. Most client/server applications rely on a persistent connection, which is not the case with wireless.
  6. Since radio waves travel through the atmosphere they can be disturbed by electrical interferences (such as lightning) that cause static.

1.5                                         SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT

a) Rapid Results – It is quick and easy to configure, giving results in seconds
b) Reliability and Ease of Use – It produces high quality results with high repeatability allowing for
c) Rapid and reliable decision making
d) Rugged and Reliable – It is a circuit with outstanding durability for field use
e) Simple User-friendly interface

1.6                                          APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT
DC motor possesses excellent torque speed characteristics and offer a wide range of speed control. Though efforts are being made to obtain wide range speed control with ac motors, yet the versatility and flexibility of a dc motors can’t be matched by a ac motors. In view of this, the demand for dc motors would continue undiminished even in figure. A brief discussion regarding the dc motor applications is given below.

1.7                                                 PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT
The purpose of this project is to build a system that can independently and wirelessly control DC motor speed. To do this, the system will need 4 core components: an input system for the transmitter, a wireless transmitter, a wireless receiver, and a motor controller connected to the receiver.

1.8                                        PROJECT WORK ORGANISATION
The various stages involved in the development of this project have been properly put into five chapters to enhance comprehensive and concise reading. In this project thesis, the project is organized sequentially as follows:
Chapter one of this work is on the introduction to a wireless dc motor speed control using infrared. In this chapter, the background, significance, objective limitation and problem of a wireless dc motor speed control using infrared were discussed.
Chapter two is on literature review of a wireless dc motor speed control using infrared. In this chapter, all the literature pertaining to this work was reviewed.
Chapter three is on design methodology. In this chapter all the method involved during the design and construction were discussed.
Chapter four is on testing analysis. All testing that result accurate functionality was analyzed.
Chapter five is on conclusion, recommendation and references.

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