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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TEMPERATURE CONTROL OVEN

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TEMPERATURE CONTROL OVEN

ABSTRACT

This project is titled the design and construction of a temperature control electric oven. It is designed to meet up with the safety and accuracy demand of electric oven usage in industries and homes in the absence of the user or operator.

It is designed to control the temperature of the electric oven to a variable range (0°C -100°C) which must be set by the user or operator. And this can be achieved by the use of temperature sensor known as THERMISTOR which functions as a control switch. This thermistor is a temperature control device with a high or low resistance value which can go high or low when the temperature is increased or reduced depending on the type.
 
In this project, this device is design in such a way that when the required temperature of the oven is reached, the heater of the device will automatically switched-off and will maintain the off stage until when the internal temperature the oven drop with about 3-6°C, and then it will switch-ON again in other to maintain that 100°C. And this automatic feature is controlled by a high current relay.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

  •                                      INTRODUCTION

The idea behind the design and construction of this system is to make available or alternative means providing safety and accuracy demand for electric oven using for household or industrial purpose. This goes a long way in helping to curb the problem frequently encountered as a result of fire out break, burning of food, and inaccuracy found in measuring and maintaining temperature. That not with standing it makes it possible to have other means of heating food without constant temperature monitoring until when the required temperature will be achieved thereby creating time for the operator to be engaged on other works while the system is in operation.

Moreover, rate of fire accident cause by heating appliances in this country is high. So there is every need that other means of safety should be made available for constant running of our electric equipments and gadgets and also to provide comfort to man. Hence, with the help of a Thermistor Controlled electric oven, which has come to solve the problem of fire accident and inaccuracy found in temperature measurement in Nigeria, a steady running and operation of our electric equipments and gadgets is guaranteed.

1.2                               OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of this work is to design to design a temperature control device which can control a temperature range of 0°C -100°C automatically – without the help of the user.This study is to devise a means of producing or cooking food with three apartment to address the following:
(1)            The problem of sooty pare-heating as observed in vaporizing cookers.
(2)             Economically, this equipment is designed for cost reduction and easy to maintain.
(2)        To reduce the effect of kerosine scarcity prevailing in our present days.
(3)            To meet up with inadequate availability of fire wood through deforestation.

1.3                                       SIGNIFICANCE OF PROJECT
This project work is intended to serve as a catalogue and manual for the construction, installation, maintenance and repair of different possible faults in temperature controlled oven, it is also of a great benefit to the department and society as it will serve as medium of knowing the principle of operating the model work. It serve as an alternative means for cooking instead of using the gas oven, and the firewood.

1.4                          SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
Outside the culinary world, temperature control ovens are used for a number of purposes.

  • A furnace can be used either to provide heat to a building or used to melt substances such as glass or metal for further processing. A blast furnace is a particular type of furnace generally associated with metal smelting (particularly steel manufacture) using refined coke or similar hot-burning substance as a fuel, with air pumped in under pressure to increase the temperature of the fire.
  • A kiln is a high-temperature oven used in wood drying, ceramics and cement manufacturing to convert mineral feedstock (in the form of clay or calcium or aluminum rocks) into a glassier, more solid form. In the case of ceramic kilns, a shaped clay object is the final result, while cement kilns produce a substance called clinker that is crushed to make the final cement product. (Certain types of drying ovens used in food manufacture, especially those used in malting, are also referred to as kilns.)
  • An autoclave is an oven-like device with features similar to a pressure cooker that allows the heating of aqueous solutions to higher temperatures than water’s boiling point in order to sterilize the contents of the autoclave.
  • Industrial ovens are similar to their culinary equivalents and are used for a number of different applications that do not require the high temperatures of a kiln or furnace.

 

1.5                                                  PROBLEM STATEMENT
Specifically, this design seeks for a source of energy that is relatively cheap and available, and therefore has an edge over other stoves and ovens using kerosine and gas as sources of energy.  It also aims at making domestic cookers and ovens safe enough as against highly flammable liquid or gas fuel.
Many Nigerians today are faced with the problem of petroleum fuel scarcity and as per cooking and drying which is not often easy to get fire wood from forests that are often far away especially from the big cities.  Equally too, the few available fuels are of substandard quality with the attendant danger of fire outbreak.
In addition above, fuel consuming cookers and ovens have two outstanding deficiencies, namely; sooty pre-heating and problem of dogged nozzles which lead to offensive discouraging and dirty burning.
Above all, deforestation as a result of fire wood consumption is causing great deal of environmental problems in most regions of Africa.  In this modern world and its various invented means of cooking, it largely seems as if non has quite addressed this area by providing an alternative means of cooking and drying.
In a close observation, large scale cooking and drying as an drying of meat and fish sellers, commercial corn roasters, food sellers and “suya” sellers, etc, need efficient heating system.  The absence of short drying period and hygienic process of preserving our loide and sea foods is another issue, which has led to fast spoiling and give an electrical stove with an oven apartment to sufficiently address these problems.

1.6                                              SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
There is no upper limit to the temperature obtained except the ability of the material to with stand heat.
1.7                                         DELIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
1.      There is freedom of location and general adaptability.
2.      It entails good cooking condition, cleanliness, quietness and ambient temperature.
3.      Uniform of temperature within narrow limit.
4.      Capital cost, running and maintenance cost of electric oven are low.
5.      There are no deposits of ash carbon dirt in an electric oven.

1.8                                          LIMITATIONS OF THE PROJECT
Disadvantages in the use of temperature controlled ovens:

  • Cleaning and repair is a difficult and time- consuming endeavor.
  • Expect for mass production singular construction is relatively expensive to produce.
  •  If precautions are not well carried out, it can result in fire hazard, which is dangerous to life and properties.
  • Because temperature controlled ovens provides heat for one or more areas, the temperature may vary in different areas of the baking oven.
  •  Oils and moisture collected on metal surface can end up trying to rust the metal coating if not clean regularly.
  • It is expensive to operate in high volume operations.
  • Speed seem to be the key factor and time taken to get to required constant temperature can be wastage of time.
  • Access to internal component n case of adjustment and maintenance is tasking as it requires an entire disassembling.
  •  In case of mechanical faults resulting from shut down, an entire disassembling and requires is required.
  •  Due to its function by heating, there is always a premature wear or mechanical failure of some of the internal component.
  •  It cannot be used where there is no electricity, since it make use of electrical energy.

1.9                                       IMPORTANCE OF TEMPERATURE OVENS
In actual analytical enunciation an oven is an enclosed chamber in which things are heated or cooked with various sources of power.
Its importance borders around its function, which are as follows;

  • (i)    It is used to meet the everyday basic need of cooking, (baking, toasting, gritting, toasting) of food materials for human consumption.
  • (ii)    Ovens are used for heat treatment of substance in laboratories and industries.
  • (iii)    Also as a means of preservation by heat application to perishable materials (organic and inorganic) in general.
  • (iv)    Sterilization of instruments and equipment for industrial use is done by heat application using oven.
  • (v)    Expelling of moisture content to a required measure in some substance is also done using oven.
  • (vi)    Early manufactured ovens where used as a source of room heaters during cold weathers in cold climates.
  • Other importance boarding around its energy source is that the use an alternative source of energy when either fossil fuel or electricity is not available.  This can be relatively save cost when necessitated.

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