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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF RAIN ACTIVATED ALARM

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF RAIN ACTIVATED ALARM
ABSTRACT

Due to the rate of damages that occur to our industrials and homes possessions during rainfall. This rain alarm will give you an alarm indication  the instant it starts to rain, hopefully giving you time to close windows and bring in possessions in our homes and to keep so many of our industrial machines in a proper place.  The alarm has also the ability to indicate when it stops raining, by that time the alarm will stop.
This project was designed to indicate when it is raining and also to indicate when the rain has stop. Apart from these two applications, there are other applications that this alarm has which would be mentioned in this work.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 TITLE PAGE

APPROVAL PAGE
DEDICATION
ACKNOWELDGEMENT
ABSTRCT
TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

    • INTRODUCTION
    • AIM/OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
    • SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
    • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
    • LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
    • TYPES OF RAIN ALARM
    • PROJECT ORGANISATION

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0      LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1      REVIEW OF RAIN SENSOR
2.2      RAIN SENSOR DESIGN
2.3      REVIEW OF THE MAJOR COMPONENTS USED
CHAPTER THREE

3.0      CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY
3.1      BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE SYSTEM

3.2      CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
3.3      CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
3.4      SYSTEM OPERATION
3.5      COMPONENTS LIST
3.6     DESCRIPTION OF MAJOR COMPONENTS USED

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       RESULT ANALYSIS

4.1      CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE AND TESTING
4.2      ASSEMBLING OF SECTIONS
4.3      CONSRUCTION OF THE CASING
4.4      TESTING OF SYSTEM OPERATION
4.5    INSTALLATION OF THE COMPLETED DESIGN
4.6    COST ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FIVE

    • CONCLUSIONS
    • RECOMMENDATION

5.3     REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE
1.0                                                      INTRODUCTION
The water alarm detector is a self-contained electronic device that sounds an alarm when its sensor is in contact with water. It can be used near water heaters, washing machines, sump pumps, bathtubs, toilets, dishwashers, and high-efficiency furnace pumps.
Water alarms will detect leaks from toilets that have the potential to cause mold growth.
Slow leaks from appliances and plumbing fixtures often go unnoticed. Excess moisture and standing water from a slow leak can cause extensive damage to the floors and walls of your home. There is also the potential for mold growth. A water alarm detector will let you know if there is a moisture problem.
There are two types of water alarm detectors-passive and active. The passive detector uses a 9-volt battery. The moisture sensor is placed on the floor and activates the alarm when it becomes wet. Damp locations or high temperatures may reduce the life of the battery, so the detector should be checked regularly to see if it is working properly. These detectors can be purchased at most home improvement stores.
Active water detector systems can operate an individual appliance or control the whole house. This system also generates an alarm, and it automatically shuts off the water supply. These systems are more costly than passive systems.
Since active water detectors may require special shut-off valves and electrical wiring, it is best to consult a professional to determine which system will meet your needs.

1.1                           OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
It will rain at any time without realizing it. Shirts in a clothesline outside the house that is almost dry to wet again if we are slow to lift it. This project will help the housewife or other users to alert more quickly when it rains. The sensor is able to detect even the slightest water and will sound an alarm when exposed to rain. The main objective to be achieved in this project is to produce an alarm to help users alert more quickly to avoid the presence of rain from wet shirt at clothesline outside the house. Sub objective that support the main objective are:
1) Complete the electrical circuit to detect the presence of rain
2) Complete the mechanical part of the model house.

1.2                        SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
A rain sensor is an automated device that shuts off your lawn irrigation system every time it rains. It is a relatively cheap device that can save up to 45 percent of your water bills, help protect the environment and conserve water.
A rain sensor is mounted outdoors away from trees and roof over hangs so that it can collect rainwater without obstruction. A rain sensor can either be wired or wirelessly attached into a lawn irrigation system. Below are the five advantages of using a rain sensor.

1. Conserve Water

There is a lot of water that you can save by using a rain sensor. By automatically turning off your lawn irrigation system every time it rains, the conserved water can be used in other essential purposes such as fighting fire.

2. Prevent Disease Damage and Nutrient Loss

Over-watering prevent the roots of your plants from reaching deep into the ground making your plants vulnerable to disease. Over-watering is also one of the major cause of nutrient loss in plants as excessive watering washes away the nutrients of the soil leaving your plants weak and unhealthy.

3. Save Money on Fertilizer

A rain sensor prevents you from overwatering your plants and lawn. When a plant is overwatered, the nutrients from the turf wash away into the drainage system. You have to compensate by adding more fertilizers to your lawn and plants. This means spending more money on fertilizers. With a rain sensor that effectively prevents your lawn irrigation system from overwatering your lawn and plants, your garden turf will remain to be an ideal environment for your plants in accordance with the fertilizer that you are using.

4. Increase the Life-span of your Irrigation System

Using a rain sensor prevents unnecessary wear and tear of your lawn irrigation system since it minimizes the amount of time that your lawn irrigation is in operation. This is especially useful during the rainy season where rain unpredictably come and go.

5. Prevent Groundwater and Waterways Pollution

A lawn irrigation system equipped with a rain sensor minimizes wasteful runoff such as pesticides, motor oil, fertilizer, pet waste and sediments from reaching your waterways. It also minimizes garden pollutants such as herbicides and fertilizers from getting into your groundwater system.

1.3                         APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT
Rain alarm is an application which detects the rain water and blows alarm. They are useful devices and play an important role in various industries such as automobile, irrigation, and wireless communication.
1.4                                SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
This rain detector will give you a heads-up the instant it starts to rain, hopefully giving you time to close windows and bring in possessions. The circuit draws virtually no current when the sensor is dry and the current consumption is low when the buzzer is activated. Alternately, a molded power supply with a simple voltage regulator to drop the voltage to 3 volts could be used. When the circuit is triggered, the buzzer is pulsed about once per second for a very short time, giving it a “dripping water” sound which seems appropriate.

1.5                                    TYPES OF WATER ALARMS

It’s a full time job keeping your basement dry.  Everyday threats include heavy rains, backed up sewage line, a leaky hose or even your neighbour emptying their pool.  Sump pumps are perfect for removing pooling water, and a backup battery and pump system help create peace of mind.  Even with a backup pump and battery system, failures happen.
It’s the water sensor and alarm system that act as your last line of defense; alerting you before disaster strikes.  In this post we’ll explore four different options of water alarms: the standard alarm, the phone dialler (or auto-dialler) alarm, the Wi-Fi enabled alarm, and the cellular sump pump alarm.
Standard Sump Pump Alarm.  The most cost-effective solution on the list is this group of sump pump alarms.  They are very simple and have a limited feature set.  For the user, just set the device on the floor and when water is sensed the alarm will sound. Some standard alarms work via battery power, some via a wall outlet, and some offer a wall plug with battery backup.
Pros: very affordable, easy setup, great if you’re going to be in close proximity of the unit to hear it.
Cons:rely on proximity, if you’re not close or can’t hear the alarm then you’re not being warned.  Cheaper units use low quality parts that may rust overtime, rendering them useless.
Phone or Auto Dialler Sump Pump Alarm.   The auto dialler alarm works much like the standard pump alarm; when water is sensed the device sounds an audible alarm.  The auto dialler has an added feature though; it can make a call out to your phone to warn you of the alarm.  The only way the call out feature works is when a phone line is present at the device, this could mean installing a line in the basement or having to run service to your home if you only use a cell phone for phone service, which is rather common these days.
Also, if there is a lightning strike, the surge will come in thru the unshielded phone wire and take-out the dialler. You usually don’t know it happened until you need the dialler, and it does not work. Also, sometimes diallers will not hang-up the phone line, disabling all the phones in your house. If this happened during an emergency, people calling your house will get a busy signal, and you have no idea what is happening;
Pros:calls to send alerts rather than just sounding an alarm, ensures you know there is a problem.
Cons: can run rather expensive at prices near, could be difficult to install if you do not already have a phone line running to your sump pump, could cost you long distance depending on where you’re calling, may be rendered useless by lightning, may not hang up and jam up your outgoing phone connection.
WiFi Auto Dialler Water Alarm.  The solution for installing a phone line is the Wi-Fi based sump pump alarm.  The solution works just like the Auto Dialler in that the device will call you when it senses water.  The one perk is that you can connect to your local wireless network and it will use VOIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol) to send the call. Some of these devices also allow remote data monitoring and the sending of emails or SMS messages.
If you do not have a wireless router or internet connection, then this will not be the right solution for your use. Also, unless your cable router and Wi-Fi access point are backed-up on a UPS (uninterruptible power supply), your Wi-Fi access point will be powered off during a power-fail event and will not be able to notify you of an alarm.
Pros: added features since it’s an internet connected device, no need to run phone lines to the alarm
Cons: rather expensive with most systems starting at greater than $300, could be difficult to install if you’re not familiar with wireless networks, must have a wireless internet connection for this system to work, must have a UPS system or you won’t receive notifications when power is lost to your home .
Cellular Sump Water Alarm.  These are the newest devices on the market and work like the standard sump pump alarm and sound an alarm when water is sensed.  Since they are cellular based they have text messaging built in and send out a message when the water sensor touches water.   These devices do not require a phone line or wireless internet connection to work, but do generally require a cell service plan.  Some cellular water alarms come bundled with the cellular card and are truly plug-in-play, others require a separate cell phone or dedicated-pre-pay phone that connects to the unit, making it a little more difficult to setup.   Cellular water alarms are the easiest to install systems that offer their particular features.  They install like a standard pump alarm but offer the features of more robust and harder to install systems.
Pros: easy to install, very cost effective, offer two notifications in the form of an audible alarm and a text message.
Cons: require cell service which is available just about everywhere but some spots do not get coverage
Choose the Right Technology. In the end, it does matter what technology you use.  You’ll want a water alarm that:

  • alerts you no matter where you are, because leaks and floods can happen any time of day or night.
  • sends messages when the power goes, as power is regularly knocked out during a storm.
  • sends notifications direct to your mobile device, so you can take immediate action to prevent a flood.

1.6                        PROJECT WORK ORGANISATION
The various stages involved in the development of this project have been properly put into five chapters to enhance comprehensive and concise reading. In this project thesis, the project is organized sequentially as follows:
Chapter one of this work is on the introduction to rain alarm. In this chapter, the background, significance, objective limitation and problem of rain alarm were discussed.
Chapter two is on literature review of rain alarm. In this chapter, all the literature pertaining to this work was reviewed.
Chapter three is on design methodology. In this chapter all the method involved during the design and construction were discussed.
Chapter four is on testing analysis. All testing that result accurate functionality was analyzed.
Chapter five is on conclusion, recommendation and references.

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