DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF DUAL POWER SUPPLY
This work is on a dual power supply. A dual output power supply is a power source that provides two separate Direct Current (DC) or Alternating Current (AC) voltage outputs. Both are usually electrically isolated from the power supply input by a transformer. The outputs may be electrically isolated from each other as well, depending upon the design. It may be an adjustable power supply or it may provide fixed voltages or currents.
In electrical and electronics engineering, dual power supply are used to supply positive polarity (+Vcc) as well as negative polarity (-Vcc, not connected to ground!) and ground potential to appliances.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENT
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 REVIEW OF REGULATED POWER SUPPLY
2.2 REVIEW OF POWER SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS
2.3 REVIEW OF GENERAL APPLICATION OF POWER SUPPLY APPLICATIONS
2.4 REVIEW OF TYPES OF POWER SUPPLY
3.0 CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY
3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE SYSTEM
3.2 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
3.3 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
3.4 SYSTEM OPERATION
3.6 COMPONENTS LIST
3.7 DESCRIPTION OF MAJOR COMPONENTS USED
4.0 RESULT ANALYSIS
4.1 CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE AND TESTING
4.2 ASSEMBLING OF SECTIONS
4.3 CONSRUCTION OF THE CASING
4.5 INSTALLATION OF THE COMPLETED DESIGN
A power supply is an electronic device that supplies electric energy to an electrical load. The primary function of a power supply is to convert one form of electrical energy to another and, as a result, power supplies are sometimes referred to as electric power converters. Some power supplies are discrete, stand-alone devices, whereas others are built into larger devices along with their loads. Examples of the latter include power supplies found in desktop computers and consumer electronics devices.
Every power supply must obtain the energy it supplies to its load, as well as any energy it consumes while performing that task, from an energy source. Depending on its design, a power supply may obtain energy from various types of energy sources, including electrical energy transmission systems, energy storage devices such as a batteries and fuel cells, electromechanical systems such as generators and alternators, solar power converters, or another power supply.
All power supplies have a power input, which receives energy from the energy source, and a power output that delivers energy to the load. In most power supplies the power input and output consist of electrical connectors or hardwired circuit connections, though some power supplies employ wireless energy transfer in lieu of galvanic connections for the power input or output. Some power supplies have other types of inputs and outputs as well, for functions such as external monitoring and control.
Dual power supply units are common equipment in electrical engineering and electronics. They supply positive polarity (+Vcc) as well as negative polarity (-Vcc, not connected to ground!) and ground potential. In particular cases both the positive and negative rails are required for the proper operation of your circuit. For example, some Op-Amps need dual power sources.
A dual output power supply is a power source that provides two separate Direct Current (DC) or Alternating Current (AC) voltage outputs. Both are usually electrically isolated from the power supply input by a transformer. The outputs may be electrically isolated from each other as well, depending upon the design. It may be an adjustable power supply or it may provide fixed voltages or currents. This type of power source is often used by scientists and technicians in laboratories as well as medical and industrial facilities.
If both outputs of a DC dual output power supply are electrically isolated, they can be wired in series or parallel to increase the available voltage or current. Isolated outputs also allow a dual output power supply to drive separate circuits which must not have a common ground connection. If the outputs are not electrically isolated from each other, they will share a common ground. Such a supply may have only three physical connectors, instead of two output and two ground connectors.
Some dual output supplies provide fixed, regulated voltages and currents. In a DC supply, the polarity may be the same or opposite for the two outputs. It may also be selectable with a switch for each output. An AC supply may allow the frequency to be adjusted, or it may be fixed like the voltage.
To obtain a complete circuit for this work, the circuit is mainly composed of the:
- Input transformer: The input transformer is used to transform the incoming line voltage down to the required level for the power supply. Typically the input transformer provides a step down function. It also isolates the output circuit from the line supply.
- Rectifier: The power supply rectifier converts the incoming signal from an AC format into raw DC. Either half wave or more commonly full wave rectifiers may be used as they make use of both halves of the incoming AC signal.
- Smoothing: The raw DC from the rectifier is far from constant falling to zero when the AC waveform crossed the zero axis, and then rising to its peak. The addition of a reservoir capacitor here fills in the troughs in the waveform, enabling the next stage of the power supply to operate. Large value capacitors are normally used within this stage.
- Regulator: This stage of the power supply takes the smoothed voltage and uses a regulator circuit to provide a constant output virtually regardless of the output current and any minor fluctuations in the input level.
1.3 ADVANTAGES OF THE PROJECT
A single–phase circuit, instantaneous power varies sinusoidally. However, a dual power supply ensures constant power supply to a device when one power source fails, which could be as a result of a lot of factors.
Multiplies Supply Frequency
Dual DC power supply mutiplies the the supply frequency by 2.
Increases Power Output
More power is guaranteed whenever a dual DC power supply is engaged, compared to a single power source. Just like supply frequency, it multiplies the power supply by 2.
A dual DC power supply is less expensive. Dual DC power supply is cheaper than running on a single power supply. It also comes in useful in situations where one needs more power to boost already available amps. The additional power supply doesn’t have to be of a higher wattage as not much loads need to run on it. For instance, the old power can be used to run the fan and pumps and the new DC source can power the motherboard and other components of the desktop computer.
Ease of Installation
Addition of a dual DC power supply to an already existing direct current power supply source is easy and can be completed in less than 20 minutes. For example, once the spot is identified for the second power supply, run a cord out of the case to connect the green pin and any black pin coming from the main power supply to the auxiliary. It is as simple as that.
A rig that uses dual DC power supply is guaranteed with constant and uninterruptible power supply. Again, a desktop computer can receive dual power supply, one for the fan and the second one for the motherboard. This set up ensures that power supply is not compromised whenever a device is switched on due to fluctuation of voltage. An electricity power supply can fluctuate whenever we add a load to it. Fluctuation of electric current is one of the major causes of damage to computer systems
Extra power supply does not change the case temperature as may logically be expected.
Dual power connection makes it easy to switch off the air conditioning device of an ATM machine without interrupting the entire power supply during cold weather conditions and saving up energy in the process.
A dual electric power supply is important for several reasons. Not only does it ensure stable power supply to a device, but it also helps prevent system damage. It allows for multiple usage of power by increasing power output. To put short, it ensures regular direct current power supply. The importance of a dual DC power supply cannot be overemphasized.
1.4 APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT
Power supplies are a fundamental component of many electronic devices and therefore used in a diverse range of applications. This list is a small sample of the many applications of power supplies.
Computer power supply
A modern computer power supply is a switch-mode power supply that converts AC power from the mains supply, to several DC voltages. Switch-mode supplies replaced linear supplies due to cost, weight, and size improvement. The diverse collection of output voltages also have widely varying current draw requirements.
Electric Vehicle power supply
Electric vehicles are those which rely on energy created through electricity generation. A power supply unit is part of the necessary design to convert high voltage vehicle battery power.
Welding power supply
Arc welding uses electricity to melt the surfaces of the metals in order to join them together through coalescence. The electricity is provided by a welding power supply, and can either be AC or DC. Arc welding typically requires high currents typically between 100 and 350 amperes. Some types of welding can use as few as 10 amperes, while some applications of spot welding employ currents as high as 60,000 amperes for an extremely short time. Older welding power supplies consisted of transformers or engines driving generators. More recent supplies use semiconductors and microprocessors reducing their size and weight.
Aircraft power supply
Both commercial and military avionic systems require either a DC-DC or AC/DC power supply to convert energy into usable voltage.
An AC adapter is a power supply built into an AC mains power plug. AC adapters are also known by various other names such as “plug pack” or “plug-in adapter”, or by slang terms such as “wall wart”. AC adapters typically have a single AC or DC output that is conveyed over a hardwired cable to a connector, but some adapters have multiple outputs that may be conveyed over one or more cables. “Universal” AC adapters have interchangeable input connectors to accommodate different AC mains voltages.
Adapters with AC outputs may consist only of a passive transformer (plus a few diodes in DC-output adapters), or they may employ switch-mode circuitry. AC adapters consume power (and produce electric and magnetic fields) even when not connected to a load; for this reason they are sometimes known as “electricity vampires”, and may be plugged into power strips to allow them to be conveniently turned on and off.
The problem of this work is high heat loss, and lower efficiency levels when compared to a switch-mode power supply.
If this device output is regulated, that means it will required heat heatsink for the regulators.
1.6 PROJECT WORK ORGANISATION
The various stages involved in the development of this project have been properly put into five chapters to enhance comprehensive and concise reading. In this project thesis, the project is organized sequentially as follows:
Chapter one of this work is on the introduction to a dual power supply. In this chapter, the background, significance, objective limitation and problem dual power supply were discussed.
Chapter two is on literature review of dual power supply. In this chapter, all the literature pertaining to this work was reviewed.
Chapter three is on design methodology. In this chapter all the method involved during the design and construction were discussed.
Chapter four is on testing analysis. All testing that result accurate functionality was analyzed.
Chapter five is on conclusion, recommendation and references.