JOB SATISFACTION AMONG WORKERS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA
1.1 Background to the Study
The success of any organization depends largely on the ability of managers to provide motivating environment for its employees. The challenge for most managers today is to keep the staff motivated in order to perform well at the workplace. By understanding the needs of employees’, particularly in the construction supply chain, managers can understand what rewards to use to motivate and keep them satisfied. The study of job satisfaction in the construction industry is quite relevant since it can support employee retention and work performance (Schermerhorn, et al., 2005; Krietner, 2003 and Arnold, et al., 1983). Job satisfaction is proven as one of the key factors that contribute to productivity (Mustapha, 2013). Schermerhorn (2005) defines job satisfaction as the amount of positive feelings which an individual has towards a job. Job satisfaction may be improved via fulfilling issues such as self-esteem, respect, appreciation or recognition, the safety and security of the employee (Wright, 2001). The satisfaction of the employee can also affect several factors such as motivation. The study of job satisfaction among construction workers is key since awareness of factors influencing job satisfaction is crucial to increasing productivity (Okpara, Squillance and rondu, 2005, cited Mustapha, 2013). Again, being aware of specific factors that influence satisfaction, particularly in the construction sector, could provide insights to management of organisation in terms of reducing alienation at work place, secure employee loyalty and to attract potential employee in order to increase productivity (Mustapha, 2013). In Nigeria’s construction industry for instance, companies are currently applying various non-financial incentive schemes aimed at providing satisfaction to employees to improve operatives’ productivity. This has significantly improved bricklayers’ productive time and accounted for 6 % to 26 % increase in output in block laying and concreting activities (Olabosipo, 2004).
Argyle (1972) asserts that workers who are happy with their job will attend work regularly and permanently. His idea is based on the Human Relations School’s over simplicity prescription. Hill and Trist (1955) through their withdrawal theory, explains trends towards absence, turn over, accident, association and employees length of service. However, there are a few writers such as Tiffin McCormick (1996) who had reviewed relevant literatures and do not share the same view as other author. They stress the relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism should not be generalized. In this sense, it is important to understand factors determining job satisfaction, although they are not simply exact opposite of those contributing to job satisfaction. Satisfaction and dissatisfaction stem from various roots. Smith, Rand Roth, D. (1991) investigate the following factors as major causes of job satisfaction; pay, work, promotion, supervision, co-workers including Safety. Maloney and McFellen (1998) explained that satisfaction with intrinsic factor contributes to job satisfaction. They went further to say those job outcomes which are directly related to performing a task can be termed “intrinsic outcomes” and those that are allocated to (by) others signified “extrinsic outcomes”. Performing a task requires one to make use ones skills and abilities which provides that intrinsic outcomes. On the other hand, satisfaction is a function of job outcomes both desired and expected. Therefore those workers who achieve the outcomes their expected tend to be satisfied with their work.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Job satisfaction has been the subject of inquiry by many researchers. Most of these various research works on workers job satisfaction were done in various industries with very few pertaining to the construction industry. A study by Simons and Enz (1995) however shows that there are significant differences in terms of what employees want from their work in different industries. These previous studies on job satisfaction pertaining to those industries cannot therefore be related to the construction industry. The labor front in Nigeria is often characterized by industrial strikes in demand for improved working conditions. If workers in the construction industry lay down their tools, it is likely to cause reduction in productivity and time overruns which in effect will increase construction cost because most of construction projects have deadlines to meet with cost penalties attached for non-completion in time. Again material and labor cost may also increase when there are delays due to labor strikes. Studies by Borcherding and Oglesby (1974) had found out that in the construction industry workers have expectations and they are satisfied when these expectations are met. Yet still Cotton et al., (2005) found out that improved worker satisfaction is key to sustainable productivity in the industry. There is therefore the need to investigate job satisfaction among workers in the construction industry.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to investigate level of job satisfaction among construction workers, specifically the study intends to:
1. Find out the level of job satisfaction among construction workers
2. Analyze the effect of job satisfaction on workers in the construction industry
3. Find out the factors that determines job satisfaction among the construction workers
1.4 Research Question
1. What is the level of job satisfaction among construction workers
2. Is there any effect of job satisfaction on workers in the construction industry
3. What are the factors that determines job satisfaction among the construction workers
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: there is no effect of job satisfaction on workers in the construction industry
Hi: there is significant of effect of job satisfaction on workers in the construction industry
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study would contribute to literature on factors influencing construction worker job satisfaction. It will again serve as a basis for all stakeholders in the construction industry, including the Ministry of Works and Housing, Association of Building and Civil Engineering Contractors in Nigeria, Directors of construction companies, project managers and site supervisors to help contribute their best towards performing certain activities in a manner that will motivate workers in the industry so as to create in the workers a certain amount of satisfaction.
This research will also serve as a guide and reference point for other research on the same topics
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.
However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable