EMPLOYEES’ PERCEPTION ON MOTIVATION MECHANISM IN NIGERIA PUBLIC SERVICE
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The public sector organizations have more often than not been faced with problem of how to manage the performance of their employees so that they can put up optimal performance at the workplace. The way and manner organizations handle performance appraisal processes, labour-management relations, employee sanctions or disciplinary measure as well as training and development goes a long way to determine the attitude of the employees in the organization. The desire of any organization is to achieve industrial harmony because that is what facilitates the realization of the desired output level and productivity.
In some organizations, experience has shown that some employees perform at very high level requiring little or no supervision; others perform with consistent and high level supervision. These scenarios have accounted for the varying differences in many organizations (Emesowum, 2010).
Managing employee performance is not a new concept, rather what appears to be new is that approaches and methods have continued to change to keep pace with the starting break-through in technology, changing employment legislation and changing workforce composition and dynamics. Apart from this, the global competitiveness occasioned by innovation has made effective employee performance management compelling for all managers so that greater competitive advantage may be achieved through the efficiency of workers (Nwachukwu, 2009).
Workers in any organization are the life wire of such organizations, the level of technology notwithstanding. According to Idemobi (2010), employee performance in any organization is a direct function of their relationship with the management of the organization.
Success in managing employee performance means recognizing that human resource is the most critical of all. Perceiving human resource in this directive will facilitate proper utilization of the realization of set goals and objectives (Eromaturu, 2010). Organizations are set up to achieve some set goals. In order to achieve these goals and objectives, the human factor is of utmost importance. Thus, the human factor through the leadership or management mobilizes and utilizes all other factors such as performance appraisals, employee motivation, employee satisfaction, compensation, training and development, job security, organizational structure and others, to bring about desired performance of the organization. But the area of this study is focused on employee motivation as a factor that can enhance job performance. This is because no organization can hope to achieve high level of performance without a well-motivated workforce. It is generally believed that when employees are adequately motivated, they tend to work better. In contrast, when they are inadequately motivated, their performance tends to be impaired (Ejere, 2010).
This explains why scholars have spent considerable time and resources in research, in an attempt to discover the secrets or techniques of motivating employees for optimum performance. However, lack of motivation among employees in an organization is recipe for the failure in the accomplishment of desired goals and objectives. In order to avert these failures experienced by most organizations, employee motivation is an absolute necessity and the manager’s realization of the type of motivation that will enhance the employees to perform their jobs optimally will lead to the achievement of a high level of advancement of the organization. Therefore, the total organizational performance depends on efficient and effective performance of individual employees of the organization. It is important to note though, that different employees in different organizations are motivated differently with varied type of motivation (which could be intrinsic or extrinsic) by leaders, managers or administrators who inspire them to act in different ways towards job performance in the organization.
Good remuneration has been found over the years to be one of the policies the organization can adopt to increase their workers performance and thereby increase the organizations productivity. Also, with the present global economic trend, most employers of labour have realized the fact that for their organizations to compete favourably, the performance of their employees goes a long way in determining the success of the organization. On the other hand, performance of employees in any organization is vital, not only for the growth of the organization, but also for the growth of individual employees (Meyer and Peng, 2006). An organization must know who are its outstanding workers, those who need additional training and those not contributing to the efficiency and welfare of the company or organization. Also, performance on the job can be assessed at all levels of employment such as: personnel decision relating to promotion, job rotation, job enrichments etc.(Aidis,2005; Meyer and Peng,2006).
In Nigeria, interest in effective use of rewards to influence workers performance to motivate them began in the 1970’s. So many people have carried out researches in this area, some of which are Oloko (2003), Kayode (2003), Nwachukwu (2004), Meyer and Nguyen (2005) and Egwurudi (2008). The performance of workers has become important due to the increase concern of human resources and personnel experts about the level of output obtained from workers due to poor remuneration. This attitude is also a social concern and is very important to identify problems that are obtained in industrial setting due to nonchalant attitudes of managers to manage their workers by rewarding them well to maximize their productivity .In view of this, this study attempts to identify the impact that motivation has on employee performance in order to address problems arising from motivational approaches in organizational settings. Vroom (1964), supported the assumptions that workers tend to perform more effectively if their wages are related to performance which is not based on personal bias or prejudice, but on objective evaluation of an employee’s merit. Though several technique of measuring job performance has been developed, in general, the specific technique chosen varies with the type of work. For achieving prosperity, organization designs different strategies to compete with their rivals and for increasing the performance of the organizations. A very few organizations believe that the human personnel and employees of any organization are its main assets which can lead them to success or if not focused well, to decline. Unless and until, the employees of any organization are satisfied with it, are motivated for the tasks fulfillment and goals achievement and encouraged, none of the organization can progress or achieve success. All these issues call for research efforts, so as to bring to focus how an appropriate reward package can jeer up or influence workers to develop positive attitude towards their job and thereby increase their productivity. Therefore, this study focuses on employees’ perception on motivation mechanism in Nigeria Public service.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The performance of organization and employee motivation has been the focus of intensive research effort in recent times. How well an organization motivates its workers in order to achieve their mission and vision is of paramount concern. Employees in public sector organization are becoming increasingly aware that motivations increases productivity (Eromaturu, 2010). From the foregoing, and looking at today’s economic trend, it is evident that the pace of change in our business environment presents fresh challenges daily. Nigerian public sector is grappling with dwindling economy and its concomitants such as poor conditions of service and late payment of salaries which result in, people tending to migrate to better and consistently paying jobs (Eromaturu, 2010). . From this viewpoint satisfaction on a job might be motivated by the nature of the job. it pervasive social climate and extent to which workers peculiar needs are met. Working conditions that are similar to local and international standard and extent to which they resemble work conditions of other professions in the locality. Other inclusions are the availability of power and status, pay satisfaction, promotion opportunities, and task charity.
Civil service anywhere in the world is relied upon for effective implementation of government policies so that the people can adequately feel the impact of governance. The civil servants are expected to render effective and efficient services delivery to the members of the public as well as help government in carrying out developmental programmes that will improve the quality of life of the people. Unfortunately, this has not been so as a result of many factors which center on poor employee performance management (Ejere, 2010).
Civil servants have complained of poor conditions of service, lack of transparent performance appraisal process, selective administration of disciplinary measures and lack of training opportunities all of which have resulted in undesirable labour management relations hence negative work attitudes such as absenteeism, lateness to work, and general lack of commitment to duty (Emesowum, 2010).
In the light of the above, this study examines employees’ perception on motivation mechanism in Nigeria Public service.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of this study is to investigate employees’ perception on motivation mechanism in Nigeria Public service. The specific objectives include the following:
1. To find out if employees in Public service are often motivated by the government.
2. To ascertain the perception of employees in Public service on the essence of monetary motivation on the performances.
3. To determine if employees in Public service are often motivated by individual and organizational goals