AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION, AMPICLOX CAPSULES (ANTIBIOTICS) AND MENSTROGEN
1.1 Background of the study
Emergency contraception is the use of a drug or an instrument to prevent pregnancy (Wood and Glasier, 2017). It could be used after unprotected sex, contraceptive failure and forced or unprotected sex, or sexual assault. Studies have shown that the rate of unplanned pregnancies is very high in the world (Sedgh, Singh and Hussain, 2014) and unwanted pregnancies are the main reason why women seek abortions (Åhman, Henshaw and Bankole, 2019). Emergency contraception could be very crucial in preventing unplanned pregnancies in environments where abortion is illegal. However, based on the evidence presented in the literature, emergency contraception has not been shown to have an impact on the population in reducing the rate of unplanned pregnancies. (Westley, Kapp, Palermo and Bleck, 2013). Globally, many unplanned pregnancies are interrupted in safe and unsafe conditions (World Health Organization, 2013). In sub-Saharan Africa, more than half of unplanned pregnancies are terminated in unsafe conditions, resulting in death and serious complications (Åhman, 2015). Abortion-related mortality accounts for about 8% of maternal deaths worldwide (Alkema, 2014). Unfortunately, half of all abortion-related deaths are among young women in sub-Saharan Africa (Raymond, 2014). This clearly suggests that young women as a demographic segment have a special need for emergency contraception. The question then is, why has emergency contraception remained underutilized despite its availability for more than 40 years? Numerous studies have reported various reasons for the low level of EC use, which vary according to context (Kharka and Bhutia, 2017). There seems to be a consensus among specialists that lack of awareness limits access to the use of UC. Similarly, increased access to emergency contraceptive pills was associated with increased use (Polis, 2016). However, it is unclear why emergency contraceptive pills have not been shown to reduce unintended pregnancy rates at the population level despite increased availability and unrestricted access.
A review of EC studies among young women in Nigeria shows that the CE awareness rate ranges from 29% (Fabamwo and Akinola, 2014) to 73% (Abiodun, 2015). The reported CI awareness rate varies by context, the conceptual definition of CI, and the demographic composition of participants. While some studies define emergency contraception as a method of preventing unplanned pregnancies after sexual intercourse (Oriaifo, 2014), which leaves the possibility of mentioning unconventional methods of EC and, hence, a level of awareness Exaggerated, other studies have specifically focused on conventional EC methods with slightly lower levels of EC awareness. Studies that give participants the names of different EC options often point to greater knowledge of CI. Similarly, a study with a high proportion of sexually active participants tends to indicate a high level of awareness of UC (Fabamwo and Akinola, 2014). Similarly, the use of EC ranges from 13% (Babatunde, Ibirongbe and Omede, 2016) to 52% (Fabamwo and Akinola, 2014). However, the reported level of use of EC varies according to the demographic composition of the participants. context and differences in the conceptualization of EC. One thing is clear, the level of awareness reported to the CU in most studies is much higher than the level of use in these studies. Inconsistent use levels in similar environments clearly indicate the need for further studies to explain the results and possibly identify barriers to EC use. When does knowledge of EC translate into its use? When does someone who is not aware of EC become aware of EC’s methods and then use CI? These are gray areas in the EC’s discourse in Nigeria and this could serve as a basis for decision-makers in designing interventions for the prevention of unplanned pregnancies.
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