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# DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF DIGITAL DISTANCE MEASURING INSTRUCTION

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF DIGITAL DISTANCE MEASURING INSTRUCTION

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF DIGITAL DISTANCE MEASURING INSTRUCTION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the study

Distance is a numerical description of how far apart objects are. In physics or everyday usage, distance may refer to a physical length, or estimation based on other criteria (e.g. “two counties over”). In most cases, “distance from A to B” is interchangeable with “distance from B to A”. In mathematics, a distance function or metric is a generalization of the concept of physical distance. A metric is a function that behaves according to a specific set of rules, and is a way of describing what it means for elements of some space to be “close to” or “far away from” each other. The distance meter, which is the focus of this study, is used for accurately determining the distance of an object without contact using ultrasonic sensor. The distance meter is frequently used in the industrial sector and especially with professions relating to construction, such as architecture, surveying, carpentry, masonry, locksmiths. Distance meter is a popular application for ultrasonic technology. This device measures geometric distances, heights, lengths, levels and positions in a non-contact process. To achieve this, all the components work together in a perfectly coordinated overall system. This system is made up of a ultrasonic sensor, the transmitter and receiver optics and sophisticated electronics and algorithms for time or phase measurement (Spasov, 2014).

On the other hand, distance detector is any device capable of measuring the distance between two points. The origins of distance measurement by means of graduated lengths
of material such as chain, tape measure or piece of knotted rope are lost to antiquity. Optical distance measurement also has a long history, and is usually taken to stem from the work of James Watt in 1771. Electro-magnetic measurements make up a third method, where the time of travel of radio or light waves is converted into a distance. Since James Watt, hundreds of different types of instrument have been produced to make indirect distance measurement using light. All kinds of devices or equipment nowadays, begin with the basic design, basic theory and then all the weakness followed by improvement step by step. So this project will also do right the same reason which the improvement will be applied to bring the advantages to the user when measuring the distance depending on several problems that had been identified. The purpose of why this project is being carry out is the ultrasonic technology that is been used for this project because ultrasonic technology is one of the medium on how the distance will be measure and this is one of the ways that the world today widely used especially in some kind of general application such as in warfare applications, engineering applications and also in scientific and medical applications. Basically this ultrasonic technology is based on ultrasound and a common use of ultrasound is in range finding that perfectly related to the objectives of this project. This technology can be used for measuring: wind speed and direction, fullness of a tank, and speed through air or water. For measuring speed or direction a device uses multiple detectors and calculates the speed from the relative distances to particulates in the air or water. To measure the amount of liquid in a tank, the sensor measures the distance to the surface of the fluid (Sinclair Ian  and Dunton, 2007).

1.2      OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

Ultrasonic Sensor or Module is used in this work for distance measurement. This article explains you how to measure the distance using 8051 microcontroller. This system measures the distance up to 4 meters with an accuracy of 3 mm. In present work the object position is measured electronically by using seven segment displays by replacing the heavy and bulky circuits with the compact circuits using intelligent Microcontroller. The bulky pressing switch is replaced by the small and one touch tactile switch. It saves electric consumption, saves the no. of man power, through seven segment display and one microcontroller as well as ultrasonic receiver & transmitter sensors.

1.3         APPLICATIONS OF THE PROJECT

• Used to measure the obstacle distance.
• This system used in automotive parking sensors and obstacle warning systems.
• Used in terrain monitoring robots.

1.4      IMITATIONS OF THE PROJECT

• This system is not able to measure longer distances.

1.5      SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

Generally, the distance can be measured using pulse echo and phase measurement method. Here, the distance can be measured using pulse echo method. The ultrasonic module transmits a signal to the object, then receives echo signal from the object and produces output signal whose time period is proportional to the distance of the object. The major components in this project are 8051 (AT89C51) Microcontroller, Ultrasonic Sensor and LCD Display. The TRIGGER and ECHO pins of the Ultrasonic Sensor are connected to the P3.1 and P3.2 pins respectively.  LCD data pins are connected to the PORT1 of the microcontroller and controller pins RS, RW and EN are connected to the P3.6, GND and P3.7 respectively. Here, the LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) is used to display distance of the object.

1.6       PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT

The purpose of this work is to measure distance using ultrasonic sensor. The ultrasonic distance meter is used for accurately determining the distance of an object or span without contact. This ultrasonic distance meter is attractive due to its ease of use and its high level of accuracy in the results recorded.

1.7     PROJECT WORK ORGANISATION

The various stages involved in the development of this project have been properly put into five chapters to enhance comprehensive and concise reading. In this project thesis, the project is organized sequentially as follows:

Chapter one of this work is on the introduction to this study. In this chapter, the background, significance, objective application and scope of this study were discussed.

Chapter two is on literature review of this study. In this chapter, all the literature pertaining to this work was reviewed.

Chapter three is on design methodology. In this chapter all the method involved during the design and construction were discussed.

Chapter four is on testing analysis. All testing that result accurate functionality was analyzed.

Chapter five is on conclusion, recommendation and references.

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