RELATIVE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCES OF THESTUDENTS IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL IN SOCIAL STUDIES IN ENUGU NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA.
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This study was carried out to determine the academic performances of the students in Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination in English Language and integrated science in Enugu North Local Government area in the year 2008 and 2009.Literature was reviewed based on the topic. The population of the study is junior secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government area, which their results are been collected using random sampling to select eight(8) secondary schools in Enugu north L.G.A. Instrument used for data collection are JSSCE results of the students from 2008 and 2009.The study was analyzed and presented using tables and percentages. Four research questions were stated that was used in carrying out the study such as what have been the overall academic performances of the students in English language in JSSCE in Enugu north local government area. What have been the overall academic performances of the students in integrated science in JSSCE in the Local Government under study? Are the performance in Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination improving or declining in terms of quality pass, ordinary pass and failure in the two subjects under study. According to their results it was discovered that the performances of the students in junior secondary school certificate examination in English language and integrated science is declining. Some conclusion and recommendations were made that the government and all those involved should find all the possible means to improve on the students’ performances English language and integrate science since they are our feature hope.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Education is the process that brings about the development of intellectual, physical and emotional qualities of children so that they may grow into useful and intelligent citizens.
He further described specifically general education as being designed to develop the functional understanding of the essential elements of life and society which people must posses to live. The social demand for education has brought about the increase in the enrolment of students in schools. This fact was confirmed by Nwaliani (2000) who pointed that the social demand approach considers education as service that is demanded by thee people just like any other goods or services. Thus, the free education at the primary and secondary school levels was a response to the social demand by he people. The free education has perhaps led to a considerable increase in student’s enrolment in the schools and has created demand for more equitable distribution of teachers to schools.
Aheruta (2000) added that the enrolment of students increased from 80, 272 in 1996 to 142, 560 in 2006 an increase of 78% while the number of 142, 560 in 2006 an increase of 78% while the numbers of teachers in the schools rose from 3, 264 in 1996 to 5, 415 during the same period giving an increase of 66% (ministry of education).
In 1878, sciences were taught to those who may not be able further in science. Question arose about the existence of the three separate subjects. Advanced countries were developing and we are doing science without proper study.
After this work of separating science subjects, a just working section of representatives from the core science committee made effort to improve sciences.
By 1920s the nature study was not effective and new development in curriculum of the basic science and some cultural values as well as intellectual stimulations were brought unto the curriculum.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) Independent Agency of the Federal Government created by the National Science Foundation Act of 1950 as amended (Pub L.31-397). The agency is responsible for promoting the progress of science and advancing the nations health, prosperity, welfare and security by supporting research and education in field of science.
With regard to Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Centre (CESAC) and educational development overseas that sponsored the (Integrated Science Workshop) and the working section through all British Council in Nigeria.
United National Education Scientific and Cultural organization (UNESCO) gave material support while Nigeria limited Publishers published the handbooks introduced in the workshop.
Adesina (1996) stated that this practice restricted science tending to only those in higher classes, however the period from 1968 to 1970 witnessed a series of joint effort by Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) and Comparative Education Studies and Adaptive Centre (CESAC) to redesign science to meet the need of less science oriented students and to be taught in secondary schools.
According to Udemba and Oga (2007) poised that English language is one of the major language out of about 5, 000 estimated languages spoken in the world. It is one of the most influential and faster growing languages spoken across the globe.
One fifth of the earth’s land surface use English language. It is the most widely studied language used by entire world, especially in areas while it is not native.
English language as the major language makes transmission of integrated science effective and efficient.
The survey of English language is an indisputable fact that language like every other subject has its history. It has undergone a lot of changes in its original structure. The old English is not appreciated by the modern speakers of English language unless such speakers have undergone some special training in that area. Butt inspite of this, through all the centuries the continuity in the development of the proper and sound system of English language has been ensured and maintained.
According Jowith (1998), English language is known as Standard English from nineteenth century. This was the period in which British men began coming to the country in steadily increasing numbers as missionaries, traders, soldiers and government officials. Their presence helped to ensure that Standard British English has a prestige in Nigeria as in Britain.
This was the model heed up in schools for Nigerian learners to emulate in primary secondary and higher education from Deignton (1997), the early modern period of English began in the late fifteenth century with the publican by William Carton of his first book printed in England with the end of the Wars of Roses. There was a great different a between the early modern English and the present day English in a bid to draw destruction sent day English in a bid to draw distinction among the various types of English language used in this period has emphasized that “Although the English language is considered to have entered into its moderns period after 1450, the language of Shakespeare (1564-1616) and the King James bible (1611) certainly differs in many ways from the English of the twentieth century “Accordingly, a distinction is usually made from 1700 on words. It must be emphasized at this point that English language continued to change in various forms ranging from the syntax, morphological, grammar, phonetic and phonology symbols to semantic and linguistic pattern.
English language as a language is use in several countries and is widely studied. English language is used as an official language “Lingua Franca” it is the language for unification. In primary and Junior Secondary Education, it is used to teach other subjects and to pass information from the teacher to the students from new encyclopedia Britania Vol. 4p 500 2005) English language has flexibility of educations functions. This means that one word can function as various parts of speech in different context like in verbs, noun, adjective and give different meanings.
According to Anibueze, (2007) view English language from the stand points that educational pre-requisite for advancement and career success in the country. It means a lot in the life and progress of students as it a key subject with profound influence in all the other school subject.
According to Ozohili (2007) poised that English language has an important role because it is concerned with those abilities of speaking listening reading and writing that are required for learning in all areas of life chemistry, Biology and Physics therefore from all indication occupying very important position in Junior Secondary Education. Any amount of financial resource spent on their research versification, experimentations, drill, observations and study to improve effectiveness and productivity seem to be investigate in the right direction. English language and integrated science occupies a special position in the Junior Secondary School curriculum. The central focus of learning English language and integrated science is to produce skillful and science oriented individuals.
In English language however, the procedure processes are syntax, semantic, structure, lexical, morphology, phonetic and phonology etc.
According to Oladimeji in Ene (1991) defined integrated science as knowledge for nations process that are universe among mankind which has existed since the dawn of human existence. It is also the study of nature which includes man and his environment. The study of science is the effect to discover and increase human understanding of how the physical world works.
According to Otiji (2008), the early modern science this period is believed to have started in 15543 when the revolution by the astronomer, Nicolaus Copernicus was first printed, which hinged on the assumption that the earth moves round the sun.
The introduction of science as the Iron Age that set in metals such as bronze, copper and gold. It brought the transformation of local technology to modern technology which the Junior Secondary Students do as Integrated Science as a subject. The science and technology of today is said to have evolved gradually through the period of 300-500 BC to the present day advanced stage with the invention of very advanced cutting edge technologies. It is borne out of man’s desire and curiously to know more about himself, his environment and how to solve is problems to make life more comfortable. Ofuebe (2007) view science as a variety of information, abilities and operations about the natural environment. Science is more concerned with various investigate processes and activities with regard to developing, acquiring and controlling, knowledge, skills capabilities and attitudes about the natural factors of the environment from these processes, reliable and verifiable information are accumulated for use in science and other disciplines. Okebukola (2001) explain science as a human enterprises involving systematic study of an environment with a view to make logical and reasonable explanation about natural and fund solution to the problems that confront man. According to Ekere (2003) science is defined as the attempt by human beings to organize their experience about nature into meaningful system of explanation. These experiences include knowledge of human actions on things, events or situation and also the result of consequences of such action. Everett (1993) wrote that science is the kind of knowledge that is based on fact established by careful observation, experimentation. The scientists collects facts that seen to apply to his particular problem and can be tries to classify them to some kind of other system from these, science is the study of know ledge about the structure and behavior of the natural and physical world. Based on the fact that you can prove for example by experimenting the new development in science and technology. It can also be a system especially one concerned with aspects of human behaviour or society.
Dott (2003) commented that science consists simply of the formulation and testing of hypothesis based on observation evidences experiments. It is concerned human effort to understand or to better to the history of the nature world and how the world works with observing natural phenomena and discovering new things.
Dienye and Gbamaja (1990) poised that human survival is enhance by man’s ability to integrated several disparate realities for his use with aims of training the students in the process of scientific which eliminates and which does not recognize the traditional subjects boundaries when presenting topics. Ogbonna (1982) cited by Ene (1991) that Integrated Science by virtue of its name is the bringing together of different branches of science as a unified whole through the concepts and method which pervade the natural science.
Integrated Science therefore defined as an approach to the teaching of science in which concepts in science discipline are combined and presented in such a way that the students learn. Science as a whole instead of learning it as a separate discipline. This helps the students to know the basic concepts and key ideas with proven opportunities for students to learn reasoning skills and a new way of thinking about their environment. Science can also be view as a method of obtaining knowledge. This can be achieved through many skills some of the process skill involved in scientific inquiry includes observation, verification and experimentation. Integrated science, its origin between 1957 and 1969 when growing awareness was generated and effort made low and developing functional and integrated science curriculum for junior secondary school all over the world curriculum.
Integrated science as a system has been made compulsory in the Junior Secondary School. This therefore serves as a starting point for teaching of introductory part of other areas of science subjects. The survey of English language and integrated science put blame for poor academic achievements of the students should be opportune to principals, teachers and government agencies.
Akabogu and Ndu (1992), puts the blame on the teachers, principals, students and governments agencies for low academic performances of junior secondary school students in the junior secondary school examinations certificate in the area of English language and integrated science.
Again, Ukeje, Akabogu and Ndu (1992) views student’s low academic achievements in junior secondary and primary school “thus” a large number of principals of junior secondary school and headmasters of primary schools has become absentee school administrators. The classroom consequently have generally abandoned their teaching responsibilities lack of instructional materials like textbooks, computer, charts, diagram, apparatus for experiments etc, implies failure to the students for English language and integrated science which is taught in junior secondary school to be functional. It requires enough qualified teachers and teaching aids for teaching. Therefore, laboratory contributes immensely to the academic performance in integrated science students to achieve more when they receive education that will train their entire body.
The classroom work takes care of the intellectual aspects of the students and practical brings out what they have. Therefore, in the school system it is necessary to ensure that all the variables relating to junior secondary school students academic performance in certificate in English language and integrated science are positively oriented so as to bring out the highest performance in their results.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Students are no longer interested in study of science; it appears that there is a big decline of interest in study of science subjects especially in our junior secondary school, with this considerably decline in interest in the science and technologies development will continue to elude the country inspite of abundant resources at our disposal.
A great nee therefore, is on how to award off this wrong attitude and stimulate our young scientists.