DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF WOOD LATHE MACHINE
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To achieve the aim of producing a functional and efficient wood lathe machine. We analyzed and as well synthesized the different possible design solutions and concepts. We carried out the analysis of different component part of the machine to determine their suitable dimensions based on loading and stresses due to them. We used available local material and tool from a private workshop. We also made use of some machine tools in the school workshop. Finally, the parts were assemble and the machine test – run. To ensure the achievement of best performance, interactive procedures, were carried out. The material, labour and overhead costs were determined to get the production cost of a prototype.
TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE
1.2 Literature Review
1.3 Trend in Lathe Machine Fabrication
1.4 Dimensions and Specification
1.5 Statement of Problem
1.6 Purpose of Study
2.1 Theory of Design
2.2 Materials Selection
2.4 Resolution of Forces
2.5 Reactions, Forces and Moment Diagrams
2.5.1 The Shear force and bending moment diagrams
2.6 Maximum Shear and Bending Stresses
3.0 Assembly Procedure
3.1 Testing and Evaluation
3.2 Operational/Safety Guide
3.3 General Maintenance
4.0 Cost Analysis
4.1 Material Cost
4.2 Labour Cost
4.3 Overhead Cost
4.4 Summary of Costs
In recent times, the demand for interior decorations and furniture has been on the increase. With it comes the choice of various designs and models. This has led to the design of a good number of machines that can be used by the craftsmen to create different wood designs amongst which is the wood lathe machine.
The main objectives of this project are to:
(a) Use available local materials in fabrication
(b) Achieve a reduction in the cost of production of the machine
(c) Reduce the labour cost and time spent on using hand tools for wood dressing
(d) Create awareness for, and encouragement of indigenous technology
(e) Increase Productivity and creativity
The vital need for the fabrication of wood lathe is significant in the much delay and time as well as energy wasted in using simple hand tools to carry out jobs moreover, the cost of importation of a lathe machine is tool high for an average war. Similar to the use of other machine tools, the wood lathe machine will help to reduce the cost and consequently increase the rate of production and craftsmen skill. It is also important to explore the design of machines to improve on the ones already in existence.
1.2 LITERATURE REVIEW
This covers a brief but concise history of the lathe machine, and other works relevant to this project, which had been done earlier.
1.3 TREAD IN LATHE MACHINE FABRICATION
The emergence of the lathe machine date back to an unknown period, but it gained popularity between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Then opticians used it for cutting lenses used in the construction of astronomical telescope. They modified the relatively rough technique for special purposes. Artisans and furniture makers used the larger lathes in turning frame works though the frames were made of wood and had one or two headstocks depending on the work being done. The wooden frame made it inaccurate.
Discussed below are some related lathe machines:
A. CENTER LATHE MACHINE
A center lathe is used to machine metals, by rotating the work fierce mounted between centers against a cutting tool. The tool can be fed both transversely and longitudinally with respect to the turning axis of the job. The tool can be operated manually or automatically and many shapes as well as different works can be done on the center lathe. Such work as cylindrically, eccentric or conical shape can be machined. Also done on the center lathe are threading turning and boring operations.
B. CERAMIC LATHE MACHINE
The ceramic – lathe is used for ceramic machining along, though the operation is similar to that of the center lathe.
C. WOOD LATHE
The wood lather, just like other types of lather, it can be used to carry out a wide range of machining operations, it saves time and does not wed much ski //s as in the use of hand tools.
1.4 DIMENSIONS AND SPECIFICATIONS
Below are the dimensions and specifications as regards t the fabricated wood lathe.
1. Total length of the machine
2. Total height of the machine
3. Width of the machine bed
4. Angle of inclination of the tail stock
5. The electric motor RPM
6. The space between the bed rails
7. Diameter of headstock pulley
8. Headstock shaft diameter
9. Diameter of motor fully
10. Width of tailstock (H – channel)
11. V – Belt
12. Maximum length of work
13. Minimum length of work
14. Maximum diameter of work
1.5 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
The continuous quest to have the problems of man and his growing need solved has led to the establishment of factories and others industries, which necessities an intermediate technology. However, simple hand tools that were in use before are no longer efficient for mass production. In the same manner, the importation of wood lathe machine, as a substitute for these tools, likewise has failed to meet man’s insatiable needs because of our unstable economy.
Then, there comes the need for urgent attention to a better and locally made wood lathe machine.
1.6 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The design and fabrication of wood the lathe machine aims among others thing at justifying a simple way of scraping and cutting off wood at it’s hest quality at a minimum cost of labour, so that the financial burden if people can be reduced.
The simple design and fabrication of this machine, makes it viable, reliable and easy to carryout maintenance services at the minimized cost.
1.7 SCOPE OF WORK
Essentially, the machine comprises the made of metal, with the headstock fixed in position, the tail stock moves along the bed of the machine, and the tool rest mounted on a cross slide which can be moved both longitudinally and transversely on the bed it is located between the headstock and the tail stock.
In operations, the machine is limited to only scraping and cutting of any type of wood. Drilling operations cannot be performed on this machine.
The calculation of the stress on the Headstock spindle
The v belt attacked to the shaft gives a force.
Taking moments about c,
For equilibrium condition åmc = 0
294.3 x 200 – R1 x 100 = 0
58860 = 100R,
R1 = 588.6 and R2 = – 294.3N
The maximum bending moment is found Jo be
M = 294.3 x 100 = 294.30 Nmm
The section modulus of the shaft 1/c
= pd3/32 where d = shaft diameter
Þ 1/c 3.142 x 283/32 = 75 46 mm3