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THE DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A IRON SHELLING MACHINE

THE DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A IRON SHELLING MACHINE

ABSTRACT.

A machine for corn Sheller is highly and greatly need for consistence of usage of corn in local and international levels.

With regards to this indispensable need, a corn-shelling machine is designed which operates to remove the corn grains and leaving the cobs intact.

In attainment to this design objective and aims, a proper considerations was given to the machinability factor which includes, installation, simplication, durability, choice material operational efficiently serviceability of the masculine low costing and prolonged life span when operates with utilization with minimal down fine

The design details are given includes such items as materials and their characteristics. Adaptation methodology the parts relation with the whole device and the effect of the finished product upon which an inqiusit mined can make collection of fact in future which related to this project.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATION

1.                  Introduction

2.                  Literature  Review

3.                  Material selection

4.                  the shelling llnit

5.                  The construction and Design methods

LIST OF SYMBOLS

SYMBOLS                                                                                         UNITS

N – Factor of safety                                                                Kilogram

M –Mass                                                                                             Kilogram

Dia – Diameter                                                                                    Meters.

M – Bending Moment                                                                        Meters

T – Torque                                                                                           Newton meter

V – Velocity                                                                           Newton – second

T – Time                                                                                              Seconds

I – Moment of inertial                                                                         Kilogram (meter)

g. – Acceleration due to grarity                                                          Newton (meter)

G – Modulus of rigidity                                                                      Newton (meter)

P – Pressine                                                                                         Newton (meter)

p. – Power                                                                                           Kilowatts

F – Force                                                                                             Newton’s

H – Height                                                                                          Meter

Rpm – Revolution per minute

R – Radius                                                                                          Meter

V – Volume                                                                                        Meter

Wt – Weight                                                                           Newton’s

D – Density                                                                                         Kilogram – mater

Pc – Critical Load                                                                               Newton

L – Length                                                                                          Meter

W – Width                                                                                          Meter

S – bending stress                                                                               Newton

Y – Tensional strell                                                                 Newton /meter

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1              Purpose of construction

1.2              Importance and specification of the project

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review

2.1              Hand shelling method

2.2              Direct linkages and its limitation

2.3              Refined Design and its specification

CHAPTER THREE

Material Selection

3.1              Material selection and Design of shaft

3.2              Selection and location of Bearing

3.3              Electric Motor Selection

3.4              Selection Of Pulley Material

CHAPTER FOUR

The Shelling Unit

4.1              The frame

4.2              The spinning shaft

4.3              Belt Drive

CHAPTER FIVE

Construction and Design Method

Metal Hopper

The shelling Unit

Outlet

Barrel

Perforated metal

Sequence of Assembly

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

We have participated indeed in mass shelling of corn using the most primitive. Cumbersome and difficult method of hand shelling, which encourages time consuming, and human stressfulness. Corn otherwise known as “Oka” in Igbo tribe is mostly used seed across all the tribe in country today. It is widely used in homes, hotels and schools for eating and seeding process (when dried). It is therefore hardly to see any Nigerian who has not tested it in one way or the other.

Now, since it is very imperative for dieting inclusively, it can be refined to form varieties of food supplementary diet such as making of Akamu (pap), semuviter corn powder, corn mill etc.

Today, in our industrial sectors such as ceramics and biscuit industry, it is widely used for making of biscuit, flouring for baking of bread, and corn Mill. Infect to summers all these, junked food that are baked in supermarket today are mostly involves corn in making them.

In the light of this as technology advances forward, on introduction of this machine (Sheller) made manifest and come into existence which is more stressless, easy to operate, low costing and time reduction with high degree of production volume and efficiency modifications have also been made it possible to be manually and electro – mechanical operated types depending on the choice of design and the speed of shaft required

Today, with the aid of this, it has created availability of corn Sheller (steeling machine) even in the market which indeed removed our difficulties and impossibilities when using and engaging with the modern method of design.

1.1              PURPOSE OF CONSTRUCTION

This project is meant to achieve the following purpose

1)      To design and fabricate corn sheller which easy to operate with high degree of efficiency

2)      To design and fabricate a machine (corn Sheller) that would save time and cost, with high degree of production volume.

3)      To design and construct a corn Sheller that would not have much breaking effect of grains, leaving the cob’s intact during the process.

4)      To design and constrict a corn Sheller that is economical and have little or no complication in maintenance

5)      To design and construct a corn Sheller with high percentage at local technology

6)      To design and construct a machine that is cost effective and manual stress reduction

1.2              IMPORTANCE AND SPECIFICATION OF THE PROJECT

The importance attached to this design is the facilitation and the production of voluminous corn Sheller without much time and without recounting much breakage of the grains of the corn in shortest possible time

The specification was obtained considering the items or component used and the hopper and barrel dimensions put into consideration as well.

The sign parameter for corn Sheller machine are.

1.2.1        BARREL

a.       Outer barrel – The barred do not rotates with the shaft rather stands on itself inside the shelling chambers. It is a half of cylindrical shaped perforated below to enable shelled corn to rush out to the conveyor to the outlet or basin. It is weld and tight at the endwise of the structure; they are flanges at end for the location of the bearings for the shaft. At the lower end of one is an open segments serving as outlet for the cobs and a hood is built covering it.

Entrance

Below is a complete drawing of the outer barch as show.

Out barrel with role below.

Spike

Fig 1

Outer for cobs

Vanes

b)                  Inner barrel – This cylindrical Barrel rotates with the shaft support by end-to-end bearings. The diameter of the shaft is ……………… mm and for the inner barrels diameter is 60…mm having 20 numbers of spikes measuring…mm from the barrel surface and also wounded varies that does the shelling process.

Diameter of inner barrel is …mm and its length is…mm and consequently the diameter of the shaft…mm and having a length of ….mm.

Below in the diagram of the inner barrel

Fig 2

HOPPER

This is similar to a port the different is that it is bigger and covered like the port. It is either trapezoid or rectangular in shape, each shape chose have its advantage and disadvantage. It has an entry through which the corn caters the shelling chamber and the inner engulfing the shaft. It is obtained after cutting a mild steel and welded it with guage 12 electrode and it is dimension as.. 260 x 250 mm x 260 mm.

The diagram is as follows

Fig 3

1.2.3        RECEPTACLE

This is the outer funnel that collect the shelled corn from the conveyor to the outside

1.2.4.      SPIKES

This is the rod attached to the surface of inner barrel, which does the shelling process with the inner barrel and spring vanes. It is to 20 in number and measured …mm vertically up from the barrels surface each.

1.2.5        COB OUTLET.

This is an exit via which cobs goes out of the barrel after shelling process.

1.2.6        CONVEYOR

This is a carrier that carrys the cobs out of the barrel after shelling process

1.2.7        DISCHARGES CHAMBER

These are the holes perforated below the outer barrel through which the shelled grain corn falls put to the conveyor.

1.2.8        COLLECTION / OUTLET BASIN

This is curved mild steel welded below the perforated outer barrel inclined to enable the falling out of the shelled corn to the receptacle.

1.2.9        `INLET

This is the particular place in the hopper through which the corn enters the shelling unit/chamber for shelling process it is measured as mm length mm width.

1.2.9.1              SPINNING VANES

This is made up flat tiny metal welded round the inner barrel together with the spikes it is the part of the machine where the corn are been shelled.

It is also placed and horizontally wound the inner barrel and should be capable of withstanding impact from the corn and possesses good chemical resistance, high working temperature (100%) and tensile strength.

Dimensionally, it is measured…. mm from the surface of the inner barrel wound horisontally.

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