PRODUCTION OF LIQUID AND VAPOURIZED PERFUME
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This research project was carried out principally for the production of liquid and vapourized perfumes from local raw materials. The local raw material were subjected to various processing conditions in order to obtain purified perfume. The methods generally used in this work include expression steam distillation and solvent extraction.
During the production of vapourized and liquid perfume the modern solvent for blending and holding perfume materials is highly refined ethanol mixed with more or less water according to the solubilities of the oils employed. This solvent with its volatile nature helps to project the scent it carries, and it is fairly inert to the solute and is not too irritating to the human skin.
The slight natural odour of the alcohol is remove by deodorizing of the alcohol. This is accomplished by adding a small amount of gum benzoic or other resinous fixatives to the alcohol and allowing it to mature for a week or two. The result is an almost odorless alcohol, the natural rawness having been neutralized by the resins. Other vehicles added to this includes benzene which is a solubilizer and methanol in their required proportions.
For vaporized perfumes , it has light quantity benzene while the liquid perfume has little or no of benzene and it contains more of the fragrance than the vapourized perfume.
However, it can be concluded that liquid and vapourized perfumes can be produced using local raw materials.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Motivation
Objective of the project
2.0 CHAPTER TWO LITRETURE REVIEW
2.1 Brief description of perfumes
2.2 Historical background of perfumes
2.3 Classification of perfumes
2.4 Uses, application and general
Importance of perfumes
2.5 Raw material used in perfumery
2.6 Chemical composition and chemistry of perfumes
2.7 Quantity standards and physical characteristic
2.8 General method of isolating essential oil
2.9 Formulation procedure of perfumes
3.0 CHAPTER THREE EXPERIMENTAL
3.1 Raw material
3.2 Equipment and general process description
3.3 Exaction procedures
3.4 Perfumes compounding and formulation
3.5 Characterization of perfume
4.0 CHAPTER FOUR RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS
4.2 Analysis and discussion of result
5.0 CHAPETR FIVE COCLUSION AND RECOMMANDATION
5.3 General recommendations
The word perfumes take its name form the latin word perfumery (to fill with smoke) since in its original form, it was incense burner in Egyptian temple early it was found in a mixture of finely ground spices help together by Mgrrh or storax.
It occur in certain spices and flowers were steeped in fat or oil, the fat or oil would retain a portion of the odoriferous principle which can be blended by a constitutes like vehicle a solvent and fixture.
It also occur in some leaves, seals fruits and grasses. It first production data back to the 6th century BC when God gave Moses an instruction to make an acter of twin incense and Aaron shall burn there on sweet morning (ref Exodus 30:23)
Early incenses was merely mixture of finely ground spices held together by myrrh or storax. The next advance was the discovery that, if certain spices and flower were steeped in fat & oil “Avicenna” the Arabian physician discovered steam distillation of volatile oils during his search for medical petion, he found that flower boiled in an alembic with water gave up some of their essence to the distillate.
Hence, the quest for sweet smelling substance (perfume) was born perfumery look it genesis from the midst of antiquity, and in present day’s till maintains its ageless quality “sweet smelling fragrance”
Due to the various uses of body perfume in the country, the new arises for its production from locally raw material in trade to reduce cost of buying from aboard and subsequent important into the country.
This project is therefore towards providing alternative source of raw material for the production of perfume. This will be in very large measure aid in minimizing, if not slopping entirely, the present important syndrome which does not only constitute a sever chain on our economy but has also turn our country into a fertile dumping ground for both low quality and out dates perfumery and it will also create job opportunities in the countries.
This work is aimed at developing an economical and indigenous way of producing body perfume using locally raw material in the best interest of small scale industries there by conserving their foreign exchange earnings.
But in Nigeria over ninety percent of the perfumes in use are imported either as finished or semi finished product.
Even the very little produced locally are still based on synthetic raw material, which are also imported. This is rather unfortunate, considering that numerous natural sources locally available form which the basic raw material for the production of perfume can be obtained. In cognizance of these facts, it become necessary and indeed of paramount importance that alternative source of raw materials be sought.
Even if the raw material locally available in commercial quantities and at reasonable cost, and with other advantage, natural product must be used in other to achieve a certain richness and natural character in perfumes. Although study is progressing material and in reconstructing them by synthesis the moment is still far of when gravity, solubility, refractive index, optical rotation, acid value, ester value, iodine value and among other. A knowledge of these physical characteristics help in the designing of the quality of the eventual product obtained.
Finally, an attempt is made at formulating specific brands of perfume from different oils using standard procedures.