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ANALYSIS OF CRUDE PALM OIL

ANALYSIS OF CRUDE PALM OIL

ABSTRACT

This project was carried out to ascertain whether the local palm oil met the required standard.  The analytical test carried out include the free fatty acid test the acid value, iodine value moisture, content, saponfication value, peroxide value, specific gravity, colour and viscosity.

The specific gravity of the oil sample was determined by comparing its weight when filled with the sample and that of water, while its moisture content was analyzed by oven drying the sample for a particular period time.  Titration process was used in the analysis of the saponification value, acid, free fatty aid test, iodine value acid the peroxide value.  The procedure were the same except different indicator that was used for some test e.g starch solution was for peroxide and iodine value while acid/ free fatty acid and saponification test uses phenolphthalein as their titration process.  The viscosity was also determined by allowing the oil sample to flow down at a particular time in the upper section of a viscometer, while its colour was analysis using the titanium plate disc of the colourineter to material it.

Form the test analysis, the result show that the palm oil sample under consideration has a value of specific gravity-0.915g, moisture content-1.729%, saponification value-196.35mg, acid-4769%, free fatty acid-23.97%,iondine value-49.17mg, peroxide value-26mg, colour-1125tianium disc and ciscosity-165.7 centipoises.

However, the obtained result shows hat the oil sample meets the required standard but only needed a little purification process on the moisture content as compared with the international requirement.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1       Objectives/Scope of Study

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1       Historical Background

2.2       Composition of Crude Palm Oil

2.3       Production of Crude Palm Oil

2.3.1    Local Method of Production of Palm Oil

2.3.2    Industrial Method of Production Of palm Oil

2.3.3    Summary of Unit Operations

2.3.4    The General Flow Diagram

2.4    Characterizing/ Properties of Crude Palm Oil

2.5     Redlining Of Crude Palm Oil Physical & Chemical Refining

2.5.1   Physical Refinery Process Description:

2.5.2 Chemical Refining Process

2.6    Uses of Crude Palm Oil

2.7    General Characteristic of Crude Palm Oil

CHAPTER THREE

3.0  Experimental Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0   Results and Analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1   Discussion

5.2   Conclusion

5.3   Recommendation

Reference

CHAPTER

INTRODUCTION

Palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) is one plant which grows best in tropical regions.  Palm oil fruit is a drupe consisting of a hard seed surrounded by a soft semi fibrous and semi fleshy pulp. In the center of this stone or nut lies the seed.  The fleshy part of the fruit (the pulp) is at first black in colour, but as it ripens becomes bright red.  Palm fruit common name for member is palm a large fairly of chiefly tropic all trees shrubs and vines, most spies are traces characterized by a crown of compound teases called fronds terminal tall woody, unbranched  stem. Also oil palm being a nature of equatorial west Africa and preferring high rainfall and a more open kind a long river banks grow in bunches weighing up to ten kilograms and containing hundreds of fruitless like small plums.  The flesh is oily and the oil ran be recovered by very simple means so that it is probable that palm oil has been recovered and used for human food for tens of thousand of years.  The primitive extraction procedure are still in use in the village today.  A typical method consists of cutting the bunches, usually after climbing the tree and allowing them to ferment in a heap for six to seven days then production takes place.  Vegetable as it is generally called is an important product and raw material for most agro allied industries. More emphasis had been placed on vegetable oil from groundnut source in recent time, this had been attained to its local usages most especially in domestic activities like cooking and as well as its cheap and local method of production but with the new trend in technology, vegetable oil is how being produced from both palm oil and palm kernel fruit.

OBJECTIVES/SCOPE OF STUDY

The objective of this study and analysis is to know the characteristics of the fats contained in the oil and other characteristic features in the oil about to help the manufacture that uses chide palm oil as a raw material to know the measure of proportion of both the saturated and unsaturated acids present the degree of unsaturation, its reactions with other products or fats. These study and help to a great extent in the productions of some products.

It also help one to know hoe to recover the fats present in die oil and under which condition it can be recovered and the methods of determination of the fatty acid composition.  This analysis also help in detecting the deterioration of fats; the greatest  objective is to determine the constants which helps every industries and companies that uses there oils as their raw material to know which the oil is adulterated and how to avoid and examine the mixtures contained in these oils.

These study helps to expose so many the be or environment to the nutritional value, economic value; is benefits heath wise and also the commercial gain to their country and  its economy.  known to be the most productive oil crop, a hectare of oil palm can produce five tone of crude palm oil.

 

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