THE PROBLEMS AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS OF HIV/AIDS AS A SOCIAL DISEASE: A CASE STUDY OF OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT EDO STATE
The purpose of this work was to find out the problems and solutions of HIV/AIDS as a social disease. The study was also aimed at providing data which will be useful in planning appropriate health education, as well as provide facilities which may be required to encourage the desired health behaviour against the transmission of HIV/AIDS among the populace. In carrying out the study questionnaires were administered and data collected from respondents were analyzed and interpreted. On the whole, the study revealed that;
- Majority of them perceive HIV/AIDs as a disease
- Their perception of HIV/AIDs as a sexual disease has helped them in modifying their sexual behaviour.
- There are other ways by which individuals satisfy their sexual urge such as homosexuals, masturbation, and rape but the percentage is insignificant.
- More awareness about HIV/AIDs can be created among students by the introduction of health education programme into the school curriculum.
Based on the findings above, the appropriate recommendations were made.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Background of the study
Statement of problem
The purpose of study
Significance of the study
Definition of terms
Population of the study
Sample and sampling
Techniques of data analysis
Validation of instrument
Findings, recommendations and conclusion
Recommendations of the findings
The human immunodeficiency (HIV) virus which causes AIDs an acronym for acquired immune deficiency syndrome; the gravest of the sexually transmitted disease is a pandemic which is currently confronting the world. It is unique in its devastating impact on the socio-economic, health and environmental spheres. It is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) now known to be a retrovirus of the family lentivirdae an organism first in 1981.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes progressive impairment of the body’s cellular immune system, lending to increased susceptibility to infections and tumors and the fatal condition AIDs (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). There are two main variances of the virus, HIV-1 which causes most HIV infections and HIV-2 which is more prevalent in West Africa. HIV-1 formerly called hymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV) was discovered in America among the homosexuals, but in the early seventies the homosexuals in the United States of America and Europe introduced drugs and aphrodisiac to their life styles. The HIV-2 was transmitted heterosexually.
The conditions favourable or mode transmission of this virus is through direct contact of suitable conditions since the virus has a short life span outside the body. HIV is present in semen, vaginal cervical secretions and blood, and these are the main vehicles by which the virus is transmitted. The virus may also be present in saliva, tears, urine, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid and infected discharges. In tropical and developing countries, HIV is mainly transmitted by;
- Heterosexual intercourse (85-95% transmission)
- Mother to child transmission (placenta transfer)
- Use of contaminated syringes and needles by intravenous drug uses. HIV infection can also be spread by the use of inadequately sterilized needles in clinics and hospitals and instruments used in tribal ceremonies.
- Transfusion of infected blood or blood products.
The symptoms of this deadly disease in fever (more than a month) weight loss (more than 10% of body weight), and diarrhea (more than a month) which are major signs or symptoms while other signs include tuberculosis (TB) infections of the month and throat, prolong cough, skin rashes, blister on mouth or private part or on one side of the body (herpes and shingles) and lump in neck, armpits and grain (swollen lymph gland).
The prevention of the disease is by total abstinence from reckless sexual relationship since the high increasing rate comes from sexual intercourse because it is a sexual disease. The use of condom (male) and (female) should be ensured as the last resort for those who already are sexually active and cannot avoid it. But it is not totally ideal or safe since there might be pores or tiny holes present of incident of accidental rapture of the condom.
For those already married faithfulness to each other should be advocated to avoid been infected properly screened blood should be used for blood transfusion and the use of sterilized medical instruments and/or the use of dispensable ones where possible.
- STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
HIV/AIDs is eating deep into the societal fabrics and a lot of awareness campaigns are being initiated. Despite this many people and especially the youths who still exhibit care-free attitude towards their sexual life. In the fight of the above, this study is hence undertaken to provide an insight in the societal perception of HIV/AIDs as a social disease in relation to their sexual behaviour. Specifically, the study will provide the following answers.
- Has the use of preventive measures such as condom and female condom (femidom) helped in reducing the disease?
- Is the rate of incidence or infection among the youth than in adults?
- Has the scourge of HIV/AIDs helped in reducing the activity of sexual involvement?
- If affected with the disease, has it any effect on ones sexual behaviour and other aspects of one’s life.
- If total abstinence is advocated can it reduce the incidence or infection rate of the disease?
- OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The researcher decided to study this in order to find out the following:
- To investigate how the disease is being contacted, prevented and controlled.
- To investigate the awareness level of the disease among the populace.
- To investigate how the society perceive HIV/AIDS as a social disease.
- To investigate into the impacts/problems of this drastic disease in infected individuals.
- To provide solutions to the identified problems.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to;
To provide facilities which may be required to encourage the desired health behaviour against HIV/AIDs transmission among the populace. In other words, if the perception of the populace about HIV/AIDs transmission in relation to their sexual behaviour has been ascertained, this will help in the provision of books, journals, manuals, magazines and literatures on HIV/AIDs, provision of information and counselling centres, organizing seminars and symposia on tropical health issues like HIV/AIDs. This would help to encourage the desired health behaviour against HIV/AIDs prevalence among the populace.
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The local government area (Oredo) was so large that the researcher involved people (individuals) drawn randomly from the local government area.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
For the purpose of collection of data the following assumptions has been formulated by the researcher:
- What factors can increase the prevalence of HIV/AIDs among the populace?
- What is the societal view of HIV/AIDs?
- What is the effect of the societal view of HIV/AIDs on their sexual behaviour?
- What possible ways individuals satisfy their sexual urge without contracting the disease?
- How can more awareness about HIV/AIDs be created among individuals.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Pandemic: An infection spreading over a country or t he world.
Aphrodisiac: An agent which stimulates sexual excitement.
Secretion: A fluid or substance, formed or concentrated in a gland and passed into the alimentary tract, the blood or to the exterior.
Heterosexual: Of different sexes, often used to describes a person who is attracted to the opposite sex.
Homosexual: Of the same sexes, a person who is attracted to the same sex.
Symptom: A subjective phenomenon of disease.
Condom: A rubber sheath used as a male contraceptive.
Femidom: A rubber sheath used as a female contraceptive.
Intravenous: Within or into a vein.
Transmission: Something that is transferable from one place to another.
PLWHA: An abbreviation for people living with Aids.
O/IS: Opportunistic infections
A/IS: Acute infections
Ostracization: To be driven out from the society.
Stigmatization: Describing someone/somebody in a scornful
Manner as having a mark of shame or disgrace.