ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIA’S CURRENT INSECURITY CHALLENGES (A CASE STUDY OF NIGER DELTA MILITANCY (2006-2016)
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1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Nigeria as a country is blessed with abundance of mineral resources but the issue of insecurity is growing deep into the Nigerian economy. Before the production of oil commercially in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria; that was in 1958 or there about; this region of the country has been of immense benefit in sustaining a large number of the Nigeria population if not the entire country. This region of the country is blessed with good fisheries industry for commercial purposes according to (Afinotan, 2009). For ages the people of Niger Delta were contented with farming, fishing and other activities like pottery, commercial activities like mat- making, hunting etc.
About fifty years ago, that was around 1956 in Oloibiri the shell petroleum development company of Nigeria discovered crude oil in this region of Nigeria (Aaron and George, 2010).
Oil has been the major source of income from foreign exchange earnings; contributing to about 90% of the Nigeria economy by the federal government of Nigeria.
Surprisingly, the projection of the Nigeria constitutional development, the socio-economic development and other form of class formation have really been influenced and directed by politics of oil according to Owugah, 1999.
The various states in Nigeria sees the oil from this region as blessing to the country but the people of Niger Delta sees it as a curse to their land. This is simply because of the continuous massive exploitation of crude oil from this region which in return creates socio-economic and environmental problems. The major problem here is the way the Nigerian state and the collaboration oil giants in the country have neglected this issues for a long time (Omotola, 2006). Concerning the issues of this state of affairs (1999:106) observed that this so called oil that brought much wealth to the nation as a whole and those power only ended up bringing negativity inform of poverty, disease, death and finally loss of livelihood to the people of the Nigeria Delta.
The continuous occurrences were what led to the formation of pan- Niger Delta militia group; this movement for the emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) came up in the year 2006. The violent dimension started during the struggle for local control of the Nigeria’s crude oil. Apart from the so called MEND that clearly appear to articulated grievances such as environmental insecurity and the socio- economic marginalization of the people of the people of the Niger Delta, there came another group by name sundry groups came into place in the Niger Delta. Most of this group was not coming up because of the insecurities in the Niger Delta region; most of them were coming up to for the purpose of criminality and other crimes.INSECURITY CHALLENGES
The negative activities by most of these groups cause a lot of security challenges in Nigeria’s oil belt according to Aaron, 2010. There have been series of attacks on the oil installation and the oil workers in this region of Niger Delta some of this worker were hold at ransom.INSECURITY CHALLENGES
This incidence continues grow until the late president of Nigeria musa umar yar adua granted amnesty to the people of the Niger Delta.
This really affected the production of crude from an amount of 2.7 million to 1.6 million barrel per day.
There have been series of peace talk as regards the issue of insecurity in Nigeria; this led to the reintegration of former combatants or militant into the Nigeria civil society.
From the year 2012 down to present Nigeria and the Niger Delta region have not really settle down in terms of insecurity.
On the 17th of july 2016 the president of Nigeria general buhari started the ogoni cleanup; a programme which will extend to the whole of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.
The study will assess the Nigeria current insecurity challenges after the ongoing programmes set up by the federal government of Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The Niger Delta region is the major source of revenue for the country; but as stated above, that the various states in Nigeria sees this region as a blessing to Nigeria but the communities in this region sees this as a curse to them. The excessive exploitation of oil in this region has done so much harm than good to the people in this region of Nigeria and this has caused a lot of disorder in this region. The federal government of Nigeria has deployed the joint military task force (JTF) to restore order and to also create a calm atmosphere for business and not treat the militants as dangerous to the community; the federal government of Nigeria also warned that no state should use violence to restore peace and order rather they should device a non-violent strategies to restore peace and order in most of the communities in this region.INSECURITY CHALLENGES
Of late there have been so many projects going on in the Niger Delta region; this made the landscape of this region of Nigeria littered with activities yet no one has been ask to pay or charge to court for these activities.
The major anger of the people in this area is based on the fact that they were neglected by the federal government of Nigeria. The late president of Nigeria Musa yar Adua during his regime came up with the idea to develop this region; he named the programme “Niger Delta development plan”. Nothing has been done concerning this project; he also granted amnesty to the militants and also set up the ministry of Niger Delta affairs all on the 25 june 2009. The major problem caused by this amnesty deal is the cost of its implementation; it was stated that the cost of this amnesty deal will be running into billions of naira to benefit just few people according to Aluede 2012.INSECURITY CHALLENGES
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main objectives of the study are stated as follows:
1. To examine the effect of Disarmament of Niger Delta militants on the level of crude oil production.
2. To investigate the effect of demobilization of Niger Delta militants on the reduction of the rate kidnap in Nigeria.
3. To examine the effect reintegration of Niger Delta militants on pipeline vandalization.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To achieve the following objectives for the study the study came up with the following research questions as stated below:
1. What is the effect of Disarmament of Niger Delta militants on the level of crude oil production?
2. What is the effect of demobilization of Niger Delta militants on the reduction of the rate kidnap in Nigeria?
3. What is the effect reintegration of Niger Delta militants on pipeline vandalization?
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
H0: Disarmament of Niger Delta militants has no significant effect on the level of crude oil production
H1: Disarmament of Niger Delta militants has significant effect on the level of crude oil production
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The research work will be of immense benefit to both the federal government of Nigeria, the people of Niger Delta and other researchers that wishes to carry out further research on the above topic and related topic. The study will discuss the effect of disarmament of Niger Delta militants on the level of crude oil production; it will also cover the effect of militancy on pipeline vandalization.INSECURITY CHALLENGES
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study will cover the assessment of Nigeria current insecurity challenges from the year 2006 to the year 2016.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
AMNESTY: an official pardon for people who have been convicted of political offences.
MILITANTS: Favouring confrontational or violent methods in support of a political or social cause.
Aaron, K.K. (2010). “Beyond the euphoria: Challenges of Amnesty Implementation for Sustainable Peace in the Niger Delta”. In K.K. Aaron and D. George (eds.) PLACEBO AS MEDICINE: The Poverty of Development Intervention and Conflict Resolution Strategies in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Port Harcourt: Kemnela Publications: 201-245. Ake, C. (1985). “The State in Contemporary Africa” in C. Ake (ed.) Political Economy of Nigeria. London & Lagos: Longman. Ekekwe, E. (1985).