EFFECT OF ADVERTISING POLICIES ON DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING ON CUSTOMER PURCHASING INTENTION IN NIGERIA

EFFECT OF ADVERTISING POLICIES ON DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING ON CUSTOMER PURCHASING INTENTION IN NIGERIA

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE  

1.0        Introduction

1.1        Background to the study

1.2        Statement of problem

1.3        Purpose of the study

1.4        Research Questions

1.5        Significance of the study

1.6        Scope/Delimitation of the study

1.7        Limitation to the study

1.8        Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO 

2.0        Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE        

3.0        Methodology

3.1      Research Design

3.2      Population of study

3.3      Sample and sampling techniques

3.4      Research instrument

3.5      Validity of the instrument

3.6      Administration of the instrument

3.7      Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR        

4.0        Data Analysis and Interpretation

4.1        Presentation of Data

4.2        Analysis of data

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0        Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1        Summary

5.2        Conclusion

5.3        Recommendation

REFERENCES      

QUESTIONNAIRES    

  1. Introduction

Advertising is one of the most integral parts of a business entity. Organizations all around the world spend billions of dollars every year to promote their products and advertising is one of the tools to promote their product globally. As businesses run across border, the role and greatness of advertising expenditure have expanded thus require a close examination in terms of its roles and functions. Advertising is a form of communication which is used to persuade a specific group of people to take some new action. Advertising is considered as a major and important element for the economic growth of the marketers and different companies in competition (Ryans, 1996). Advertising is usually a paid form of publicity by some sponsor and reached through various traditional media such as television, commercial radio advertisement, outdoor advertising, newspaper, magazine mail or modern media such as blogs, websites and text messages. Furthermore the developments and technological advancements have turned advertising to a more pervasive and powerful in its impact and affect (Leiss et al., 1986). Early advertisers assumed that advertising is very powerful what is said “gets through and strongly achieves the anticipated and persuasive objectives as “ the early bullet or “internal needle” models of communication which has given rise to the earliest concept of communication effects, “who says what to whom through what medium with what effect” Bryant and Zeeman 1944). The introduction of new technologies has set a new playing field in which advertisers have to be up to-date with new media such as advertising through web sites and also through mobile phones. According to the Global Advertising Industry Profile, the global advertising market is forecasted to have a value of 90.4 billion dollar in 2011, an increase of 28% since 2006 (Datamonitor Plc, Oct 2007). Wells et al., Cannon, and Kotler et al. (2006, p. 5; 1973, p. 11; 1999, p. 674) define modern advertising as “a paid persuasive communication that uses non-personal mass media-as well as other forms of interactive communication-to reach broad audiences to connect an identified sponsor with a target audience”. The definition is with the exception of advertisements that appear in the forms of public service announcements in which the ad space is donated or allocated without any expense by the media.

This is a shift from the old perception of advertisements in which they come in the forms of public announcers in the market, sandwich boards, flyers and other methods which are largely done by the proprietors themselves and these advertisements were sometime free of charge. Belch and Belch (2004, p. 16) further enhanced the definition by adding that the persuasive communication is conducted to promote an organization, product, service, or an idea. Consumers buying behaviour has always been given so much importance and space in the literature study of impact of advertising regarding its effectiveness (Ajzen, 2002). Most of the time consumers buying behaviour is influenced by liking or disliking of consumer towards the advertisement of the product, advertised (Smith et al., 2002). Likewise, Allen. Et al., (1992) argue that it is actually the emotional reaction which is developed after the advertising, for the product advertised, that influences the consumer behaviour. In the words of Gorn, 1982, the consumer behaviour towards a product is totally depending on advertising, without any assessment of the quality of the product. Furthermore, Controversies over the impact of advertising on the consumer’s buying trends and habits has always been present (George, 1989).

Sometimes the advertisers over exaggerate about the product’s benefits in such a tactful manner that consumer goes psychologically under the pressure of advertising persuasiveness and intentionally decides to buy the advertised product (Smith et al., 2006). In the point of view of some people, now most of the consumers avoid the advertisement, because they consider the advertisement, just annoying and misleading (Bishop, 1997). Advertisements have been attacked on psychological, sociological, aesthetic and political grounds. From the point of view of a common lay man, what is the purpose of advertising? Some critics even criticize and consider advertising very harmful to the collective behaviors of the society (Barbara, J. P 1997). But defenders of advertising always give a strong argument in its favor that basic aim of advertising is to sell the products, rather its effects on cultural values of the society (Gold, 1987). In the ancient days, human used to be self-sufficient. In other words, the plant or hunt for their food. Furthermore, they will try to find or make things that can satisfy their basic needs. As time goes by, their self-sufficient production began to show signs of surplus and sometime this surplus cannot fulfil other necessities. Incidentally, they have to turn to trading to fulfil their needs and to cash in their production surplus. They began to realize that in trading, they have to compete with other individuals with the same products, and thus advertising takes its first peek into the world. All the developments and changes in advertising do not come without a price. Some scholars argue that advertising can prop up ethical issues (Drumwright, 1993; Indrayana, 2004; Tinarbuko, 2002; Kunkel, Wilcox, Cantor, Palmer, Linn, & Dowrick, 2004; Aitchison, 2002; Tanudjaja, 2002).

These ethical issues include women exploitation, subliminal perception, and advertising to children, deceptive advertising, and other issues which can lead to moral deterioration of the society (Shabbir & Thwaites, 2007; Murphy, 1998; Blair, Stephenson, Hill, & Green, 2006). The fact that potentially unethical advertisements are reaching the marketplace suggested that current methods of evaluating advertisements may be insufficient for some of today’s controversial or innovative campaigns (Bush & Bush, 1994). Ethics is one of the branches of philosophy (Zubair, 1987). According to Spence and Heekeren (2005, p. 2), ethics can be defined as “a set of prescriptive rules, principles, values, and virtues of character that inform and guide interpersonal: intrapersonal conduct”. Schlegelmilch (1998, pp. 6-7) further argues that ethics is hard to define due to the fact that it cannot be directly measured and it originates from many influences such as internal and external environmental influences. Dr H. Hamzah Ya’qub (1985, p. 13) in his book, Etika Islam: Pembinaan Akhlaqulkarimah, perceives ethics as a body of knowledge that examines good and bad/right and wrong by observing human behaviours. There are extensive researches done on business ethics in general (De George, 1987; Tsalikis & Seaton, 2007; Sabrin, 2002). Researches in business ethics covers all the functions of business thus it also covers the area of advertising and promotion. Due to the fact that advertising stirs ethical controversies, numerous studies from different perspectives have been done to understand this phenomenon (Nebenzahl & Jaffe, 1998; Fam, Waller, & Erdogan, 2004; Waller & Kam, 2000).

There is a general point of view of many societal members, that advertising may have a negative, unintended or intended influence on consumers’ buying trends (Burr and Burr 1977 and Verbeke, W. 1992). Actually advertising has a strong potential on changing our social values, as well our buying behaviours through influencing our cultural values (Schudson, 1984). Specifically, advertising may lead a consumer to prefer material objects over more morally and socially oriented alternatives; it may potentially increase, conflict and lead to an unhappier and a more disappointed person of the society (Goldberg and Gom 1978). While the major aim of advertising is to give something new, creative and useful to get long term benefits of brand loyalty and image building of the product and company by establishing an emotional relationship and persuasion for buying that product. This is also a debatable issue that which kind of impact of advertising effects the beliefs and collective attitudes of the consumer with respect to the buying behaviour (Barbara, J. 1997). In the modern times, it’s really, difficult to be successful in persuasion and to mould or effect the buying behaviour of consumer in this era of tough competition (Robinson, 1997). With the success of advertising field, now it has been admitted as a universal factor that advertising plays a very influencing role in the consumers’ behaviours (Beil & Bridgewater, 1990).

If the consumers could understand the intention of advertisements, then the potential effect of advertising may be reduced. As the impact of television advertising allows consumers to use the cognitive defences, such as to produce counter arguments and reasons (Bruck, A, and Goldberg 1988). Likewise, the recognition of the false psychological impact of advertisements, allows them to avoid advertisements, break by zapping to some other channel, as it has always been shown that majority of viewers Zap at least as much during the advertising as they do during common programs (Heater & Greenberg 1985). For persuading and reaching to the consumer, advertising is considered the most effective and powerful source (Siropolis, 1997). Hence, whether or not impact of advertising on consumers buying trends is a very important issue to investigate, from the consumers or buyers point of view. Furthermore from the advertiser point of view as it will alter the impact and effectiveness of their advertisements. Likewise George (1989) stated that controversies over the effects of commercials have always been present. Advertising is accused of exploiting the feelings and building of personal anxieties, over emphasizing the material side of life and distortion of human and ethical values in children.

Due to the strong impact of advertising, it is the moral duty of advertisers to practice the code of ethics, during the promotion of their products. The purpose of advertising should be the guidance of consumer rather than blackmailing and threatening by pushing forcefully to buy that product. Proper and effective advertising always help the companies and marketers to improve their brand image and increase their share in the market (Ninan, 2008). Effective advertising is actually the other name of persuasion and liking or disliking attitude of consumer towards some particular product or advertising (Mehta, 2000; Stone et al., 2000). There are a number of factors in advertising which contribute a lot in changing the consumers’ buying behaviour. Like likeability, brand image, persuasiveness, celebrity endorsement, information about the product, entertainment etc.

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