AFRICAN TRADITIONAL MEDICAL HEALTH PRACTICES: BELIEFS AND CONCEPTS IN IHIALA L.G.A OF ANAMBRA STATE.
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MEDICAL HEALTH PRACTICES
DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGIONS,
FACULTY OF ARTS,
UNIVERSITY OF BENIN,
AFRICAN TRADITIONAL MEDICAL HEALTH PRACTICES: BELIEFS AND CONCEPTS IN IHIALA L.G.A OF ANAMBRA STATE.
BEING AN ORIGINAL DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGIONS, FACULTY OF ARTS, UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, BENIN CITY.
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF ARTS, (B.A HONS) DEGREE IN RELIGIONS
This is to certify that EMEWULU CHIOMA ROZITA carried out this research work under my supervision in the Department of Philosophy and Religions, Faculty of Arts, University of Benin, Benin City.
_______________________________________________ J.C. Ukaga(PHD;FIIA)Dr. Peter .F. Omonzejele
Project Supervisor Head of Department
DEDICATIONI dedicate this project to God Almighty for His grace. To my beloved parents, who has been my mentor, to my dearest brother Stanley, who has been my stronghold, and to all my siblings, I love and cherished you all.
First of all, I acknowledge the God Almighty for His grace, wisdom, and knowledge which enabled me to complete this work. May His name be highly glorified.
I appreciate my supervisor Dr. Ukaga Jude Chiedozie for his support, encouragement and assistance towards this work which made it a successful one. May God’s protection and blessings always remain with you and your family.
My gratitude goes to my amiable, unique, supportive and dedicated lecturers, in the Department of Philosophy and Religions, Dr. Peter .F. Omonzejele (H.O.D Philosophy and Religions), Mr. Otasowi, Mr. Valentine .A. Inabor, Dr. Wilson Ehianu, Mrs. Itohan Mercy Idumwonyi, Dr. K. Adeyomo, and Lecturers in our sister Department. I will always be grateful for all your good deeds, moral lesson and supports. May God always bless you all in abundant and in a good health.
My unending gratitude and appreciation goes to my beloved parents Sir and Lady D.C. Emewulu for their prayers, emotional advise, support, and encouragement. I also thank every member of my family, most especially my dearest brother Mr Stanley Chukwurah for his wonderful financial support, you never allowed my pocket to empty, may God bless, protect, promote and reward you in abundant. Also to my role model and beloved sister Mrs. Emelda Akah, for your assistance and support that made this work a success. Thank you for being there for me. God bless you. Thank you all for being the best family one can ever have.
My special and big thanks goes to all my coursemates, neighbours in the hostel (Home Suite, Ekosodin) and my lovely friends, Kelechi Ndukwe, Aletor Peter, Enefe Eva, Nwihim Cindy, Ojetu Stella, I thank you all for your love and care, you all have been the best thing that have ever happened to me in life. I love you all.
My appreciation also goes to the staff of J.K Biz Center, Ekosodin, Benin City, who helped in typing my project. Thank you for your good and hand work. God bless you all.
To all those who I might not have mentioned, but have contributed a great deal in one way or the other all throughout my stay in school and to the success of this project work, thank you all for your great deeds. God Bless.
TABLES OF CONTENT TOC \o “1-3” \h \z \u TITLE PAGE………………………………………………………………I
CERTIFICATION PAGEREF _Toc368782905 \h iiDEDICATION PAGEREF _Toc368782906 \h iiiACKNOWLEDGMENT PAGEREF _Toc368782907 \h ivTABLES OF CONTENT PAGEREF _Toc368782908 \h viiABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc368782909 \h xiCHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc368782911 \h 11.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc368782912 \h 11.2STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS PAGEREF _Toc368782913 \h 31.3AIM OF THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc368782914 \h 71.4LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc368782915 \h 71.5SCOPE OF STUDY PAGEREF _Toc368782916 \h 81.6RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc368782917 \h 91.7CLARIFICATION OF TERMS. PAGEREF _Toc368782918 \h 101.8SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc368782919 \h 11END NOTE PAGEREF _Toc368782920 \h 12CHAPTER TWO: AFRICAN TRADITIONAL RELIGION PAGEREF _Toc368782922 \h 132.1TRADITIONAL RELIGION IN AFRICA PAGEREF _Toc368782923 \h 192.1.1 MUSIC……………………………………………………………..23
2.1.3 ART AND SCULPTURE………………………………………….25
2.1.4 ORAL TRADITION……………………………………………….26
2.2BELIEF AND CONCEPT OF BEING IN AFRICA PAGEREF _Toc368782924 \h 292.2.1 CONCEPT OF THE SUPREME BEING PAGEREF _Toc368782925 \h 322.2.2 BELIEF IN THE DEITIES OR DIVINITIES PAGEREF _Toc368782926 \h 382.2.3 BELIEF IN ANCESTORS PAGEREF _Toc368782927 \h 422.2.4 BELIEF IN SPIRITS PAGEREF _Toc368782928 \h 422.214.171.124 GOOD SPIRITS…………………………………………………46
126.96.36.199 BAD SPIRITS……………………………………………………47
END NOTE PAGEREF _Toc368782929 \h 49CHAPTER THREE: CONCEPT OF LIFE IN AFRICAN TRADITION
3.1LIFE IS SACRED PAGEREF _Toc368782932 \h 543.2MEDICAL HEALTH PRACTICES IN AFRICAN TRADITION…573.2.1 THE DIVINER. PAGEREF _Toc368782934 \h 633.2.2 THE HERBALISTS. PAGEREF _Toc368782935 \h 673.2.3 THE WITCH-DOCTORS…………………………………………………. PAGEREF _Toc368782936 \h 703.3AFRICAN SACRED INSTITUTION PAGEREF _Toc368782937 \h 753.3.1 KINGSHIP PAGEREF _Toc368782938 \h 77END NOTE PAGEREF _Toc368782939 \h 79CHAPTER FOUR:AFRICAN TRADITIONAL MEDICAL HEALTH PRACTICES IN IHIALA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA PAGEREF _Toc368782941 \h 814.1HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF IHIALA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA…………………………………………… PAGEREF _Toc368782942 \h 814.2BELIEF AND CONCEPT OF AFRICAN TRADITIONAL HEALTH MEDICINE IN IHIALA. PAGEREF _Toc368782943 \h 834.3THE PRACTICE OF AFRICAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IN IHIALA. PAGEREF _Toc368782944 \h 874.4SIGNIFICANCE OF AFRICAN TRADITIONAL HEALTH MEDICINE IN IHIALA. PAGEREF _Toc368782945 \h 92END NOTE PAGEREF _Toc368782946 \h 95CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION, EVALUATION, AND RECOMMENDATION………………………………………………………. …96
5.1CONCLUSION PAGEREF _Toc368782949 \h 965.2.EVALUATION PAGEREF _Toc368782950 \h 975.3RECOMMENDATION PAGEREF _Toc368782951 \h 100BIBLIOGRAPHY PAGEREF _Toc368782952 \h 103
Medical health practice is one of religious practice in African Tradition. It is a means of securing the lives of the individuals. Among all communities in Africa, life is regarded as sacred. Each individual’s life is seen as a gift from God to the community and to the family.
Ihiala Local Government Area which is located in Anambra State is a community of people who hare and believe in African traditional World view and Institutions.
This work is to know African Traditional way of medical health practices, and its application and concept in Ihiala L.G.A of Anambra State. There are many ways of medical health practices now in Africa more than ever before. We need to study African Traditional Medical health practices and its belief and concept in Ihiala as a community. This will help to correct the false impression people have about African traditional way of medical health practices.
CHAPTER ONEGENERAL INTRODUCTION1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYAfrican is a large continent with many countries that have different tribes and cultures. Nigeria is one of the countries in Western part of Africa. In Nigeria, there are thirty-six states among which Anambra is one of them, and Ihiala L.G.A is one of its local government area in Anambra South Senatorial Zone. It is made up of nine (9) autonomous towns.
Practice of medicine is an important part of indigenous religions in Africa. Disease in this part of the world is normally regarded as having some spiritual cause. African traditional medicine is a medicine known and practiced by Africans from time immemorial for the health need of her people. It has an important place in health care delivery among Africans.
In Ihiala L.G.A, according to Obiaofo, it was believed that African traditional way of practising medicine have power to sustain the lives of every individuals in the community, it is used to counteract the powers of destruction and evil spirit. It is beneficial to man and important to the religious and social life of the people.
Practice of medicine is important to any religion especially in the case of African traditional religion. In Ihiala L.G.A, many people seek out diviners on a regular basis. There are generally no prohibitions against the practice. Those who tell fortunes for a living are also sought out for their wisdom as counsellor and for their knowledge of herbal medicine. Practice of African traditional medicine is an important part of their religion. Healers are reputed to have professional knowledge of illness (pathology), surgery and pharmacology (roots, barks, leaves, and herbs). Some of them are also reputed to diagnose and treat mental and psychological problems. The healer advises in all aspects of life including physical, psychological, spiritual, moral and legal matters. They also understand the significance of ancestral spirits and the concepts of witches (hence the colonial term witch-doctor). Ihiala people believed that traditional African medicine is a holistic discipline involving indigenous herbalism and African spirituality, typically involving diviners, midwives and herbalists. Practitioners of traditional African medicine claim to be able to cure various and diverse conditions such as cancer, psychiatric disorders, high blood pressure, cholera, most venereal diseases, epilepsy, asthma, eczema, fever, depression and healing of wounds and burns.
Traditional African medicine with its belief that illness is not derived from chance occurrences, but through spiritual or social imbalance, differs greatly from western medicine which is technically and analystically based. Diagnosis is reached through spiritual means and a treatment is prescribed usually consisting of an herbal remedy that has not only healing abilities, but symbolic and spiritual significance.
1.2STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Despite the importance and strong points of African Traditional Medicine, there are some problems associated with it especially as it is practised these days. These problems have almost discredited the very important heritage.
First among these problems affecting African Traditional medical practices today is, there are misconceptions about the concept of African traditional medicine in African countries, even among the people in Ihiala L.G.A. An average Ihiala youth especially people who live outside the community or outside Africa, develop their idea of African traditional medical health practices from films or stories. These films or stories often portray the African traditional medical health practices as evil, diabolic and in human acts that should be done away as practiced by evil and primitive people.
Another problem associated with African traditional medical health practices according to Omonzejele (2003) is when it resort to spiritual explanation for the causation of ill-health which is attributed to many mystical forces. This factor limits African traditional medicine to the extent that it is extremely difficult to provide explanation and evidence in accordance to basic epistemology for the cure of aliment even when the therapy is effective. For instance in Nigeria, everyone knows that orthopaedic cases are best handled by traditional practitioners, but the connection between the broken leg of hen and the treatment of a patient with a broken leg is quiet difficult to explain. In Western medicine, scientific explanations are usually provided on how a particular drug works with body chemistry, in that wise, one cannot expect the west and non-Africans to accept any kind of cure or advances in medicine by Africans without adequate explanation.
Again the fallout of Africa’s economic woes has also contributed to the problems facing African traditional medical practices. There are many traditional medical practitioners, most of them are mere charlants who like the sophists of the ancient times make huge sums of money from the trade. In the past, traditional health practitioners only saw what they did in terms of services to their communities where one cannot really afford to be dubious. The African traditional practitioners of this present day move from the rural to urban areas with the sole purpose to enrich themselves. They are patronised by unsuspecting patients. These mobile practitioners of African traditional medicine sometimes do not know anything about African traditional medicine. They are just merely people who were unable to cope with present economic situation thereby having no other option than to resort to this type of trade. They are in the business perhaps because most Africans somehow have confidence and believe in African traditional medicine.
Furthermore, the methods and procedures of using or the trial of new drug before its application on humans in African traditional medicine is weak. That by using the bark of a particular tree which was effective in animals does not show good and enough reason that the same bark will be effective in treating human beings that has a similar ailment. The African traditional practitioners hardly have knowledge of botanical properties of the drugs they use. They are unable to anticipate the effect the drug would have on humans at the trial stage, which he ought to share with the subject as to enable them make informed consent or refusal. They only hopes that the drug “works” without adverse effects. This kind of act is quiet insufficient because the drug may not only “work” but may be harmful to the subject (patient).
However, in other to correct these problems, misconceptions, the African Traditional Medical Health practices should be studied as it is an important religious liturgical act, and also of great value and significant to every individual and the society as a whole in almost all sphere of life.
1.3AIM OF THE STUDYThe aim of this study is to explore African tradition, with specific interest in her traditional medical health practices. Consequently to delineate the social stance of Ihiala L.G.A in the African Traditional Medical Health Practices.
1.4LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDYThis study has many limitations which include:
The limitation imposed by lack of finance: In this case the researcher did not have enough money with which to carryout the study, and so she has to borrow most of the time.
Limitation imposed by lack of time: This case the researcher did not have enough time to carry out a research of this nature. Lack of time therefore restricted the development of this research work.
Lack of enough materials in the area of study: In this study, the researcher did not get enough materials with which to carry out a study of this type. This is because, the topic is a relatively new one and the literatures on it are very scanty.
Problem of distance: In this case, the researcher had to travel from Benin to Ihiala to see her interviewers.
Unco-operative attitude of some of the respondents: In this case, some of the people interviewed did not give the required response to the researcher during the course of the research work.
1.5SCOPE OF STUDYThis study focused on the concept and belief of African Traditional Medical Health practices in Ihiala L.G.A. Ihiala is one of the L.G.A in Anambra South Senatorial Zone, and it is made up of nine (9) autonomous towns viz: Uli, Ihiala, Okija, Azia, Mbosi, Isekke, Orsumoghu, Uburuisiuzo and Lilu.
A qualitative research designs were adopted in this study using descriptive approach in the analysis. Literary works, field studies like observation, interview, media report and oral literature, were used as research tools.
The data collected from using different research method was analysed and carefully organised to present a clear detailed intellectual concept of African traditional medical health practices, its belief in Ihiala L.G.A. The data provided by this work listed observation and interview as primary instrument, literary material and internet sources copiously used as secondary source of data collection. The dictionary is used for definition and clarification of terms.
1.7CLARIFICATION OF TERMS.Considering the fact that certain terms and concepts used in this write may have more than one meaning, the researcher hereby offers the meanings of such words as they are used here in:
Traditional: This stand as being part of the beliefs, customs or way of life of a particular group of people that have not changed for a long time. Older methods and ideas rather than moderns or different one.
Medical: This is connected with ways of treating illness that do not involve cutting the body.
Health: This is the state of being physically and mentally healthy.
Practice: A way of doing something that is the usual or expected way in a particular organization; habit or a custom.
Belief: Something that you believe, especially as part of your religion.
1.8SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYThis study is significant for a number of reasons which include:
This study is important because it can influence other researchers in this regard.
Through this study, African traditional medical health practices will be revealed to the entire world and not Africans alone.
Through this study, the belief and concept of African traditional medical health practices in Ihiala L.G.A is also elaborated.
Through this study also, activities of various African traditional medical health practitioners will be revealed and direct their patronisers more to use their discretion.
END NOTESOmonzejele .F. Peter: Current Ethnical and other problems in the practice of African Traditional Medicine. Benin: Department of Philosophy, University of Benin, 2003.
Ihiala: Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia (Retrieved 4th June, 2013, at 12:58). http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ihiala
Hornby .A.S: Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary of Current English. (Oxford: University Press, 6th Edition) pg 1271, 733, 511, 912, 93).