MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AS AN INDISPENSABLE TOOL IN THE MANAGEMENT OF AN ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF INPOST ORGANIZATION)
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Management is essentially concerned with planning and control of the resources of a firm, with a view to the attainment of set objectives. Planning is concerned with listing of goals and the formulation of a decision model for selecting means of achieving those goals. Control on the other hand, is the regulation of the activities within an organization so that they are in conformity with expectations established ion policies, plans and targets.
Furthermore, crucial to the planning and control decisions of management, is information. Good decisions are based on information that is timely, relevant, properly presented, problem solving and forward looking. And here comes the challenge for the management Accountant to provide information for the planning and control of costs, volume and profit, for the purpose of attaining goals o management.
Management Accounting, therefore, is concerned with the application of accounting and statistical techniques to the specific purpose of providing and interpreting information designed to assist management in its function of promoting maximum efficiency.
Management Accounting focuses on the internal environment of business, and provides information for such decisions of the firm as make or buy, replacement, pricing and cost reduction decisions.
We should note, that today, life has become complex both for individuals and management could take decisions by “ bit “ or “miss” methods or by “ mere guess” so if any management does not plan on a systematic basis, it will be branded logic of little or no profits. Hence modern management, for its vital task of planning, should rely more on management accounting. Management Accounting has shifted managerial emphasis form “ Knowing costs of production is the very reason that makes management Accounting to be referred to as “an indispensable tool in the management of an organization”.
According to “ T. Lucey, (1988:1) management Accounting is primarily concerned with data gathering (from internal and external sources) analyzing, processing, interpreting and communicating the resulting information for use within the organization so that management can more effectively plan, make decisions and control operations.
1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF INPOST
The origin of Nigerian postal service (NIPOST) dates back to 1851 when the British postmaster General established a postal (PWD), in Lagos public works department office, primarily to officials and traders and their home base ”Chimezie, 1985:19)2 This assertion was supported by Baba (1998:1)3 who postulated that the first letter ever carried from the first ever post office in Nigeria was in 1851 and was by foot and horses into the hinterland.
The postal service in Nigeria was first re-structured in 1907 when from public works department of ministry of works to form post and telegraphs, the structure it maintained up till Nigeria became independent in 1960.
With Nigeria’s, independence in 1960 and her postal Administration becoming a sovereign member of the Universal postal Union (UPU) in 1961, the post in Nigeria has witnessed phenomenal growth in strength and spread with a total of over 4,500 (four thousand five hundred) postal establishments in the country today. And this number is increasing.
The universal post Union is the organization which embraces nearly all the postal administration in the would and it is one of the specialized agencies of the united nationals. For this reason, the historical origin of Nigerian postal service cannot therefore be compete without citing when it jointed the Universal postal union (UPU) which is the mother association of global administration.
The postal service in Nigeria was further re-structured on 1st January 1985 when the defunct post and telecommunications, was split into two organizations. Nigerian External telecommunication (NET) and the Telecommunications division of the P& T were merged to form the Nigerian Telecommunications limited (NITEL) while the postal division of P & T became reconstituted into an extra ministerial department to be known as Nigeria postal service department (NIPOST), all still under the ministry of communication. Ayuba (1986: 7) 4
On Ist July, 1992) Nigeria postal service department was finally re-organized and re-structured to the present status of a corporation following the granting of full autonomy by the federal government for higher efficiency and effectiveness, and by virtue of decree N0.41 of 1991, published in the federal Republic of Nigeria official Gazettee No.57, Vol .79 of 14th October, 1992 5 which spelt out the objective and functions of NIPOST. By this development, the acronym” NIPOST” now means “Nigerian postal service department “ that it was before the autonomous status.
PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY OF NIPOST
“The primary responsibility of NIPOST as established by the decree No.18 of 1987”6 were to deal with postal, professional and policy issues as:
a. To represent the Federal republic of Nigeria in its relations with other postal administration around the world in accordance with international regulations.
b. Exploration of additional sources for postal revenue.
Review of postal tariff.
Worldwide provision of highly dependable postal link between and among member nations of the Universal postal union without discrimination to race, creed and sex.
Provision of efficient counter and remittance services in the sales of postage stamps, sales of money and postal orders, sales of international postal reply coupon and post office registered envelope.
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF NIPOST
The organizational structure of NIPOST is made up of the postmaster general of the federation at the apex. Directly under him are five-deputy postmaster general as follows:
DPMG Corporate service
DPMG Operations Planning
DPMG Finance and Investment
DPMG Territorial Administration
DPMG Engineering and Technical service.
There are also unit heads called the senior Assistant postmaster generals (SAPMG) who also report direct to the postmaster general. They are as following:
1. SAPMG In charge of internal Audit
2. SAPMG In charge of Investigation and security
3. SAPMG in charge Public Relations.
4. SAPMG in charge of Legal unit
5. SAPMG In charge of Corporate Planning
6. SAPMG In charge of marketing
7 SAPMG In charge of management Information System