Impact of education in rural development process (a case study of mushin lga, lagos state)

IMPACT OF EDUCATION IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

(A CASE STUDY OF MUSHIN LGA, LAGOS STATE)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

Background to the Study

According to the National Population Commission (2012), it is generally estimated that Nigeria has 170 million inhabitants, of which 67% live in rural areas and the remaining 34% live in urban centers. Nigeria is a country on the African continent west of Africa, near the equator, extending from latitude 4N to 14 and longitude 3EE to 15˚E. With the exception of the Atlantic Ocean to the south, Nigeria is surrounded by Francophone countries; Niger, Cameroon and Republic of Benin. Nigeria is a third world country, which means that it is a developing country.

However, the fact that the majority of the population resides in rural areas indicates that rural areas need more infrastructural development, such as good roads, electricity, well-equipped schools for growth and welfare to be of their inhabitants. But in Nigeria, the opposite is the case. Greater attention is given to the urban center to the detriment of rural areas, because of the notion that the urban center is more populated; they therefore need more basic infrastructure than rural areas. This perception has created an imbalance between the urban center and the inhabitants of rural areas by creating a wide gap. As a result, urban centers are growing immensely and rural areas are experiencing stagnation and depreciation at an alarming rate.

However, the fact that the majority of the population resides in rural areas indicates that rural areas need more infrastructural development, such as good roads, electricity, well-equipped schools for growth and welfare to be of their inhabitants. But in Nigeria, the opposite is the case. Greater attention is given to the urban center to the detriment of rural areas, because of the notion that the urban center is more populated; they therefore need more basic infrastructure than rural areas. This perception has created an imbalance between the urban center and the inhabitants of rural areas by creating a wide gap. As a result, urban centers are growing immensely and rural areas are experiencing stagnation and depreciation at an alarming rate.

The main goal of education is learning, which is achieved through the teaching and learning process. According to Plato (437-337 BC) “Aesthetic education brings grace to the body and nobility to the spirit. As long as man, in his physical and sensual way of life, is not accustomed to the laws of beauty, he is not capable of spiritual freedom. As a result, education would be incomplete without adequate consideration of rural areas. Education plays an important role in this regard as it is a very convenient and powerful means for individuals to express themselves in a variety of ways in all situations, including their mental abilities in relation to their academic performance. However, it is unfortunate to note that some schools in rural areas do not have classrooms, although some classrooms lack furniture; In some schools, instruction is provided in makeshift classrooms, which may be uninteresting and boring. Inadequate and half-cooked teachers in some secondary schools are also a concern in this study (Madeki S.J (2008).

Education influences social change by improving the social position of each individual and their standard of living. Education also increases the critical capacity of rural people to diagnose their needs, assert their rights, and exercise greater control over the decisions that affect their lives. Education has the potential to respond to the transformation of rural areas, increase the workforce and enhance security. As the backbone of the education system, the National Education Policy (FRN, 1981) states that teachers in all educational institutions, including universities, must be professionally trained as they are considered tool for integrating individuals into society to be realized, to develop a national consciousness, to promote unity and to seek socio-economic, political, scientific, cultural and technological progress.

 

Durojaiye (1996) indicates three aspects that are of immediate relevance to education:

1.  The learner, his growth and development, his needs and motivation, his individual characteristics and achievement, his nutritional state and the child-rearing approached employed by his parents.

2. The learning situation, the school and wider society, the cultural context and effects on learning.

3.  The learning process and the teacher who makes them happen including his method, approaches and personality.

Education has brought about phenomenal changes in every aspect of human’s life.

Brown (2011) opines that education is a process which brings about changes in the behaviour of the society. It enables every individual to efficiently and effectively participate in societal activities and make a positive contribution to the progress of the society. Education create awareness in the rural areas regarding their right to education as stipulated in Article 26 of the United Nation Declaration of Human Right (1984) which says that:

1.  Everyone has the right to education.

2.  Education shall be free at least in elementary and fundamental

stages

3. Primary education shall be compulsory

4. Education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all in the basis of merit.

The concentration of education in urban centres rather than rural areas has done more harm than good; it accelerates rural-urban migration, generating youth unemployment. This makes rural areas undergrowth or underdeveloped. Education enhances the capacity of people, expanding the area of competence and changes orientation and attitude which significantly improve the life style of people both in rural areas and urban centers. According to World Bank (2002) Education policy and programme must be carefully designed at both national and local levels.

Impact of education in area of health is indisputable especially in area of mortality rate. However, in other to lower Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) and achieve the lowest possible Total Fertility Rate (TFR) in rural areas education has a crucial role to play in girls that dwell in the rural areas, better education of a female child or pass through a process of learning can drastically reduce maternal and infant mortality; it will also bring about positive impact for family health, birth spacing, few children and fertility related issues, better care of children, seeking right services and counsel at the right point in time and the right places, and promote health and survival and life expectancy along with economic productivity for a better standard of living.

Education can initiate social change by transforming the gaze and attitude of man. it can also lead to a change in the structure of social relations and thus to social change. This social change can be positive behavior, respect for elders, respect for culture and the impact of education on the rural development process. In any case, education in Nigeria is now more of a private enterprise, but a huge government project that has witnessed the gradual evolution of the government’s dynamic and comprehensive intervention as well as its active participation. The Nigerian Federal Government has adopted education as an ideal instrument for fostering national development.

Statement of the Problem

This research is an attempt to examine the differences between urban and rural areas in terms of rural educational development processes. The gap between urban and rural areas resulting from the cleanliness of the environment, the availability of labor and facilities in the teaching and learning process. Another problem of textbook selection or recommendation concerns program planners, teachers and even ministries of education.

 

Research Questions

1.       Is there any relationship between education and provision of   basic infrastructure in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State?

2.  Is there any relationship between education and rural         development process in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State?

3.       Is there any impact of education in rural areas in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State?

4.        Is there any difference between education and social changes in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State?

Hypotheses

This research is based on the following hypotheses.

1.       There is no significant relationship between education and      provision of basic infrastructure in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State.

2.       There is no significant relationship between education and      rural development process in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State.

3.       There is no significant impact of education in rural areas in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State

4.       There is no significant difference between education and social         changes in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this research is to look at the impact of education in rural development process in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State.

It is also to investigate whether there is any existing relationship between education and rural development process in Mushin Local Government Area.

Also to find out if people in rural area benefit from basic infrastructure in Mushin Local government Area.

To determine the impact of education in rural area in Mushin Local Government Area.

To investigate if education has improved social changes in rural area of Mushin Local Government Area.

Significant of the Study

Once completed, this study will benefit students, institutions of higher education, teachers and ministries of education. In addition, the study will attempt to provide adequate and adequate information to educational policy and program planners, particularly in rural development processes. There is no doubt that the study will help ministries of education to make useful and important recommendations on how to develop rural areas. Program designers could receive vital information on teaching and learning problems in rural areas and adopt a system to address these issues in ways that eliminate differences and reduce the gap between urban and rural areas rural areas the study will undoubtedly enrich the libraries with useful copies of documents as researchers from the Mushin Local Government region in particular and from Nigeria in general. It will also provide relevant information to researchers who may be interested in educational research.

Scope of the Study

This study is designed to show areas to which the research work is carried out; it includes both the male and female staff of Mushin Local Government Council because the research is not affected by sex.

Limitation of the Study

This study is meant to cover all the senior staff of Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State. But due to financial constraint, only 40 senior staff were used for the research. The result from this study will be used to generalize all the senior staff in Mushin Local Government Area, Lagos State.

Definition of Terms

Impact: a marked effect or influence.

Imbalance: A lack of proportion or balance.

Stagnate: Showing little activity.

Immensely:  To a great extent, extremely.

Pivot: The central point.

Discrepancy: A difference or lack of compatibility between two or more facts that should be similar.

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