Effect of Training and Manpower Development on Productivity of Workers
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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
There are a number of factors that contribute to the success of any organization, these factors include: capital, equipment, manpower, etc. All these factors are important but the most significant factor is the human factor. Since it is the people that will put the other resources to work, it should be viewed as such by management by giving it due attention in order to achieve its organizational goals and objectives.
Manpower planning aimed at ensuring that the right person is available for the right job at the right time. This involves formulating a forward looking plan to ensure that the necessary human effort to make it possible for the survival and growth of the organization, it becomes imperative to develop the employee.
Manpower development is a process of intellectual and emotional achievement through providing the means by which people can grow on their jobs. It relates to series of activities, which an enterprise would embark upon to improve its managerial capacity. Manpower development is important in any discussion of strategic human resources management.
These emphasis on manpower and development is influenced by the belief that it is now desirable to focus more attention on areas which in the past has been relatively neglected because every organization regardless of its size must provide for the needs, interest and desire of its employee within the work environment if it is to earn loyalty, dedication, involvement and commitment necessary to compete effectively.
Since the early 1960, the human factor of production of manpower as it is alternatively called, has increasable been recognized as the most critical resource of the factors without which an effective utilization of all other factors remain a dream. Although, it might to tempting to attach more importance to the availability of physical resource such as capital and equipment undermining that they are mere passive factors of production, which depend on human intellectual which is the active agent to exploit them in order to achieve the objective of the organization. Thus, the human factors (manpower) is the main stay of the organization.
In other words, the success of an organization depends on the ability and expertise of those who operate it both at the managerial and lower levels of operation, such abilities and expertise usually stems from the knowledge they possess and training received.
According to Harbison, F.H. (1973), human being constitutes the ultimate basis of a nation’s wealth. This proposition applies to the organization, which implies that with daily increase and complexity in the organizational activities and the problem ensuring optimum productivity which is fast becoming a challenge as well as imperative for the management of organization, thus, training and development of staff on whom the huge responsibility of furthering these goals rest, must take top priority if the organization must continue to enjoy maximum performance from the staff.
The main objective of setting up a company is to make profit and to achieve this organizational goal, adequate manpower planning and development programmes should be put in place to enhance performance.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The human resources (manpower) is considered the most critical to any organizational survival of a truism that adequate supply of material and financial resources that utilizes these available resources to bring about the desired goals.
However, most organizational plans meticulously for their investment in physical and capital resources and these plans are reviewed with utmost attention to detail while rarely do such organizations pay attention to human investment in which the capital and equipment will be in vain. Not many organizations consider the necessity for a well-defined and sustained training and development for staff in order to upgrade their performance or they are not able to cope financially with training and development programmes.
The very few organizations that give thought to this very important aspect of staffing functions do so with lack of seriousness; all round attention and continuity. The programmes are carried out not only once in a blue moon but are also lopsided in terms of content and staff participation. As a result of this, lackadaisical attitude of management towards training and manpower development. There had been a progressive decline in the ability of manpower to cope with the challenges that attend the over unfolding new dispensation in the industry, in the circumstance, what we find is that the rise in industrial output is inconsequential in spite of the enormous wave of modern technology that now exist in industrial activities.
It is the opinion of industry observes that the poor performance of the organization-workers follows from their inability to keep abreast with the new technological current as a result of the absence of appropriate and sufficient staff training. It is against this background that the researcher considered the impact of performance training and development on organizational performance of this mission, however, the researcher used Intercontinental Bank Plc as a reference.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Are the employees of the Intercontinental Bank Plc satisfied with quality of the selection and interview procedure?
2. Are the employees of the Intercontinental Bank Plc satisfied with the placement and promotion procedure?
3. Are there training programmes for the employees?
4. How adequate in terms of content and relevance, are these training progammes relevant?
5. Has the promotion process in the bank improved employees’ performance?
6. Are the employees of the bank utilized after their training?
1.4 THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
v To conduct an empirical investigation through a review of the manpower planning and development policy of the bank.
v To access the staff recruitment, selection and training programmes and from it, establish some relationship between these programmes and problems enumerated.
v To highlight the need for manpower planning and development in the company.
v To identify some techniques of manpower training and development in the company and their relevance to the company needs and the industry at large.
v To establish the relationship between personnel training and development and staff performance.
v To correct the belief that in this age of computerization and technological development, all that business units need to survive in the acquisition of up-to-date capital equipment to the neglects of the power management of its human resources.
v To proffer solutions to the identified problems.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The testable hypotheses of this research study are the following:
HO: There is no direct relationship between manpower training and productivity in the bank.
H1: There is direct relationship between the manpower training and productivity.
HO: Lack of adequate manpower training and development is not directly responsible for high labour turnover.
H1: Adequate manpower and development is directly responsible for higher labour turnover.
HO: Training does not the productivity of employees and the organization.
H1: Training improves the productivity of employees and the organization.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Banking services constitute the backbone of the economy of a great country like Nigeria; no wonder it is always the most active sector in stock exchange. It is upon this premise that government monitors the activities of the banks through the Central Bank of Nigeria and provides the necessary infrastructures for optimum services to the public.
In spite of all efforts geared towards improving the services of that banking industry, there are some doubts as to the quality of services rendered by the banks to its customers in particular and the nation in general. It is in light of this that the researcher through the work intend to look into the factors militating against Intercontinental Bank Plc in achieving its sets objectives, by this, the study will look into the manpower base and quality of staff of the Intercontinental Bank Plc and assess their suitability with the aim of developing training programmes to enhance their performance since the progress of an organization is a function of the quality of those directing its affairs. The importance of this cannot be overemphasized especially in these periods when most companies are international standard complaint. It therefore behooves a company to plan and train its workers for the best quality of work to be relevant in the scheme of globalization. Manpower Development
This is particularly directed to establishment that are prone to think that the intractable problems of their organization is finance and not manpower planning and development it will also evaluate aspects of the recruitment, selection and training process, which bear strong relevance to corporate image, productivity efficiency and morals.
For the management of Intercontinental Bank Plc, the benefit of training and development is that quality of work, life of the employees will reciprocate with increase performance on the job. Manpower Development
This will go a long way in providing job satisfaction and services as motivation towards the realization of individual aspiration, it will also be relevant to the human resource development department in the formulation of policies relating to training and development of personnel and for the government, to ensure adequate training and know-how to improve the economy as a whole.
1.7 LIMITATIONS AND DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Intercontinental Bank Plc was selected for this study. The coverage may give time representation of selection practice in the government owned enterprises in the economy and the organized private sector.
The study was also limited to employees of the bank. The problems, the researcher encountered was that some officers were either too busy for interviews or cleverly avoided certain questions for the fear that the information given might put their jobs in jeopardy. Those who responding to questions tends to make their answers to reflect what ought to be rather that what is, this undoubtedly affected the quality and accuracy of information collected during the study.
A large population of the staff falls among the junior staff and as such, it is difficult to really get their opinion as regards manpower development as they are shy to respond and do not really appreciate the importance of development. A lot of finance was also required in making this project a reality, thus, the researcher was faced with the problem of finance and time.
These difficulties notwithstanding the researcher made concert efforts to ensure that the project was comprehensively carried out to meet the desired needs.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Effects were made at defining the following terminologies use din this study to avoid ambiguity and elicit proper understanding.
Ø Development: This is the process concerned with people’s capacity in a defined and over a period to manage and involve positive change, and reduce or eliminate unwanted change.
Ø Manpower: The human resource of a business concern. These include unskilled, skilled supervisory and management staff of a company. Manpower Development
Ø Planning: Setting objectives and deciding on the best ways of achieving the objectives.
Ø Empirical: Of people or method guided only by practical experience rather than by scientific ideas.
Adeyemo Aderinto: “Interstate Mobility of High-Level Manpower: Implication for Achieving Even Development in Nigeria”, The Nigeria Journal of Development Studies. Manpower Development
Ashton, D. Margerson, C.J. (2000): Planning for Human Resources, London: Longman Group Limited.
Bruce, F. (2004): An Interpreted System of Manpower Planning, New York: McGraw Hill Books Company.
Diejemoah, V.P. (2001): Development of Manpower in Nigeria, Ibadan: University Press, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Graham, H.T. (2001): Human Resource Management, London: M & E Handbook, McDonald and Evans Limited.