Influence Of Instructional Materials On Students Academic Performance In Physical And Health Education In Secondary School In Uyo Local Government Area

INFLUENCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOL IN UYO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

ABSTRACT

The study was designed to determine the influence of instructional materials on student’s academic performance in physical and health education. A random sample of 200 JSS2 students and fourteen (14) physical and health education teachers from urban and rural secondary schools in Uyo Educational Zone participated in the study. The physical and health education achievement test with a reliability index 0.94 and a questionnaire for physical and health education teachers were used in gathering data. Analysis of data, using t-test for the physical and health education achievement test and questionnaire for physical and health education teachers showed that students in urban secondary schools achieved better than students in rural secondary schools, and that the availability of instructional resources, the classroom performance, adequate audio-visual as instructional materials enhance student academic performance, the quality of teachers affects teaching and learning achievement, availability of visual materials promote effective teaching and students academic performance. The study has implications for health educators, learners, education planners and policy makers. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that teachers should use instructional materials always for the teaching; instructional materials should be use properly in relation to the topic in teaching physical and health education.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Declaration – – – – – – – – – i
Approval Page – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – vi
Table of Contents – – – – – – – vii
List of Tables – – – – – – – – x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – 6
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – 8
1.3 Purpose of the Study – – – – – 10
1.4 Research Questions – – – – – 11
1.5 Research Hypothesis – – – – – 12
1.6 Significance of the Study – – – – – 13
1.7 Delimitation of the Study – – – – – 14
1.8 Limitation of the Study – – – – – – 14
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction – – – – – – – 16
2.1 Theoretical Framework – – – – – 17
2.2 Conceptual Framework – – – – – 19
2.3 The Relevance of Instructional Material in the Teaching and Learning of Physical and Health Education – 23
2.4 Related Empirical Studies – – – – – 26
2.5 Factors Affecting Improvisation of Instructional Materials 30
2.6 Gender influence on Academic Performance of Students 31
2.7 Availability of Library Facilities – – – – 34
2.8 Impact of Instructional Materials on students – – 34
2.9 Summary of Related Literature – – – – 39
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 41
3.2 Area of Study – – – – – – – 41
3.3 Research Design – – – – – – – 42
3.4 Population of the Study – – – – – 42
3.5 The Sample and Sampling Technique- – – – 43
3.6 Instrumentation – – – – – – 44
3.6.1 The Physical and Health Education Achievement
Test – – – – – – – – – 44
3.6.2 Questionnaire for Physical and Health
Education Teachers – – – – – – 44
3.7 Validation of Instruments – – – – – 45
3.8 Trial Testing – – – – – – – 46
3.9 Reliability of Physical and Health Education Achievement Test – – – – – – – – – 46
3.9.1 Difficulty and Discrimination Indices of Test Items- 46
3.10 Scoring of the Instruments – – – – 49
3.10.1 Scoring of the physical and Education Achievement
Test – – – – – – – – – 49
3.10.2 Scoring of the questionnaire for physical and
Health education teachers. – – – – 49
3.11 Data Collection – – – – – – 50
3.12 Methods of Data Analysis – – – – – 50
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 51
4.2 Results – – – – – – – – 51
4.3 Discussion of findings – – – – – – 56
4.3.1 Availability of Instructional Resources – – – 57
4.3.2 Classroom Performance – – – – – 58
4.3.3 Audio-visual as Instructional Materials – – – 60
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 63
5.2 Summary – – – – – – – – 63
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 64
5.4 Implications of Findings – – – – – 65
5.5 Recommendations – – – – – – 66
5.6 Suggestions for Further Research – – – – 67
REFERENCES
APPENDICES

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