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THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE STUDY
Until recently there has been a general resistance to investment of training in the public service because of the believe that “Employees hired under a meut system must be presumed to be qualified, that they were already trained for their jobs and that if this was not so it was evidence that initial selection of personnal was at fault.’’(stahl, 1976). This assumption has been jettisoned as the need for training became obvious both in the private and the public sectors on manpower training.
Training has become more obvious given the growing complexity of the work environment, the rapid change in organization and technological advancement which further necessitates the need of training and development of personnel to meet the challenges. Many organizations have come to recognize that training offers a way of “developing skills, enhancing productivity and quality of work and building workers loyalty to the firm” on manpower training.
Manpower training and development is essential to the existence and survival of organization. It is common for people to see training and development as the same thing. However, though they are similar, they are not the same thing.
Training is any learning activity which is directed toward the acquisition of specific knowledge and skills for the purpose of an occupation or task (cole 1993).
Ivancevich et al (1994) see training as the systematic process altering employee’s behavior to further organization goals.
According to Hellriegel and Slocum (1996), training is improving an employee’s skill to the point where he or she can do the current job. Training is the process by which members of organizations are thought to acquire knowledge, skills and abilities they need to perform effectively the job at hand. Training is directed at the present job with manpower training.
In a more comprehensive manner, training can be defined as a short term process that utilizes a systematic and organized activities by which non-managerial staff acquire the technical knowledge, skills and abilities for specific purposes in function. Training is “an organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and or skills for a definite purpose. It is a process for equipping the employees particularly the non-managerial employees with specific skills for example technical skills like plumbing, electrical wiring, repairing, artistic skills, clerical and typing skills that would enable them to improve on their performance and overall efficiency.
The objective of job training is to enable an employee to perform his job in such a way as to meet the standards of output, quality, waste control, safety and other operational requirement (Gardner, 1973).
Thomas (1988) defines training as ‘a process through which experiences are deliberately offered to trainees to enable them to absorb some new perspective, understanding, value, attitude, techniques or skills’. It involves planned activities on the part of an organization to increase job knowledge and skills or modify the attitudes and social behavior of its members in the ways that are consistent with the goals of the organization and the requirements of the job. The overall aim is to increase or improve a person’s contribution to the achievement of the organizational goals on manpower training.
Jones, George and Hill, (2000) believe that training primarily focuses on teaching organizational members how to perform their current jobs and helping them acquire the knowledge and skills they need to be effective performers.
According to carrel and kuzmits (1982) training is the systematic process by which employees learn skills, information or attitudes to further organizational and personal goal. They also stated that “every training system operates with a philosophy set of beliefs concerning people, productivity and profit”.
In view of chruden and Sherman Jnr (1980), training is any organizationally oriented procedure, which is intended to foster learning among organizational members.
Training according to Davar (1950), states that its main goal is “To induce a suitable change in the individual concerned”. It is “to bridge the gap between existing performance ability and desired performance”.
Development on the other hand focuses on building the knowledge and skills of organizational members so that they will be prepared to take on new responsibilities and challenges. Development is used in relation to the process of helping managerial employees who perform non-routine jobs to improve their managerial, administrative and decision-making abilities and competence.
In the view of adamolekun (1983), staff development involves the training, education and career development has been identified to include:
- Creating a pool of readily available and adequate replacements for personnel who may leave or move up in the organization;
- Enhancing the company’s ability to adopt and use advances in technology because of a sufficiently knowledgeable staff;
- Building a more efficient, effective and highly motivated team which enhance the company’s (AJ pam vol xvi; No.1.Jan 2005) competitive position and improves employee morale; and
- Ensuring adequate human resources for expansion into new programs.
Drucker (1977) in highlighting the work of managers submits that one contribution a manager is uniquely expected to make is to develop people. if any organization must continue to survive, it must provide opportunity for career development into specialist and managerial positions.
Development is the process of building the knowledge and skills of organizational members so that they will be prepared to take a new responsibility and challenges. Jones, George and hill(2000).
Wertherland and Davis (1996) define development to mean helping individual worker to handle future responsibilities with little concern for current duties.
Development can also be defined as a deliberate program of an organization to mould into the desirable shape its future leaders who are expected to perpetuate the business of the organization most efficient and effectively, ( o.b. fagbohungbe 2009). Development can be referred to as any learning activity which is directed towards future needs rather than present needs and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance (cole 1993). The intent of development program is to improve an employee’s conceptual and human skills in preparation for future jobs.
From the above, it is now clear that there is a major difference between them. Though both of them are geared towards increasing or improving the skills of workers. Training is concerned with teaching the workers specific skills that will assist them in their immediate task while development on the other hand is concerned with teaching the workers more general skills that will assist them in career growth thereby equipping them for the future.
As a way of summary, the purpose of training is to improve knowledge and skills and to change attitude (mullins,1999).
Training and development as stokes (1966) puts it rest on the fact that “a person learns through experience which may be actual, hearing or reading about the experiences of others”.
Training and development can also be viewed as a formal and informal activities which bring about change in the skills, knowledge and attitude of employees for the fulfillment of their individual career and organizational goals.
2.1.1FACTORS THAT TRIGGER TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Training and development is predicted on workers, machines and tool deficiencies. These deficiencies manifest inform of specific symptoms. The symptoms that trigger training and development in organization may include:
- When there is high rate of absenteeism among workers.
- Where there is increased labour turnover among workers.
- When there is decline in productivity among workers.
- When there is a poor job performance among workers.
- When new machines are purchased to replace old ones.
- When there is increase in the rate of on-the-job accidents among workers.
- When there is an increased complaint from customer.
- When there is reduced patronage from customers.
- When there is visible negative work attitudes such as lateness and oscillation (motion without movement or pretending to be busy when in actual fact he or she is doing nothing) among workers.
- When there is noticed inability to take up challenges among workers.
- When there is noticed reduction in job involvement and organizational commitment.
2.1.2 FORMAL TRAINING
It entails the deliberate and structured presentation of experiences, which may help the individuals to change their knowledge, understanding attitudes or behaviours in a positive manner. In industry, formal training is used for any of a variety of specific purposes as stated below:
- Induction Training: It involves the introduction of the new entrant to the undertaking and its ways including the structures, rules and procedures of the company to enable him to cope with the new environment.
- Skill Acquisition: Involves the development of new skills and abilities. Where ‘deskilling’ of work takes place, semi-skilled machine operators may be provided with the kind and degree of training necessary to acquire the required skill on manpower training.
- Skill Development: Training is employed to ‘up-date’ a person’s knowledge or skills at any stage of his career and whenever changes occur in his work such as where new technology is introduced. In the latter case, short courses, which provide information on the ‘new thing’ and offer the opportunity to learn and practice new skills or new application of old ones may be undertaken on manpower training.
- Increasing Motivation: It entails deliberate use of training to increase individual’s willingness to work up to the required pattern and standards. This rest on the belief that people are likely to work more effectively. They understand not only what they are expected to do, but why they are expected to do it in this way. The inculcalation of work-related values and norms is possible in training on manpower training.
- Attitude Change: Training may be undertaken to change the perspective and attitudes workers adopt in relation to the organization and their work in it in a positive way. It could develop into employees trust, commitment to the organization, job involvement and job satisfaction.
2.1.3 AIMS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
The aim of training and development include:
- To change the job behavior or attitude of employees so that they can perform to defined standards.
- To reduce the “hibernating time”. This is the gap between placement and the point at which an employee start to perform effectively.
- To improve the productive capacity of individual employee.
- To improve the effectiveness of the organization.